Professional Genealogical Sources
How to document and publish genealogy and family history;
listing of scholarly Internet tools, resources and examples.

Family Genealogy & History Internet Education Directory™ - Wiki SEARCH This Site
 Books - Publications: Genealogical Materials:
 [Books & Materials: Marketplace - Genealogy & Family History]
 Business & Professional Researchers: Individuals / Orgs.
 [Business Occupations - Business Resources]
 Calendars & Clocks  |  Citing Sources   |   Copyright, Patents & Trademarks   |  Currency & Money: Weights, Measures & Symbols
 Documentation & Identity Records  How Do I Begin To Document & File Family History?
 Indexers & Genealogists  Relationship Charts
 Research Tools, Articles & Forms  Writing Systems & Handwriting

Collaborative Real-Time Editor | List of Collaborative Software:
Apache Software Foundation: Apache OpenOffice - Free & Open
Google™ Docs: Free Online Documents for Personal Use: Guide
Google™ Drive: My Drive - Your Memories, Safe & Secure
LibreOffice Productivity Suite: Free Download and Install
[Microsoft Excel:
Excel Tutorial - Links - Vertex42 | Excel]
OneDrive (OneDrive) - Office Online (Microsoft)
TemplateLab - Business & Personal Templates
The Beginner’s Guide to Google™ Sheets

BUSINESS and PROFESSIONAL RESEARCHERS: Principle of Integrity (archived)
* Becoming a Professional Genealogist (pdf): Becoming a Professional Genealogist
  Becoming a Professional Genealogist - FamilySearch Wiki
  Academic Supervisory Relationship Specialist - Adoption Specialist
  Agency Historian - Archivist - Bibliographer - Biographer - Bookseller
  Building Historian - Business Historian - Columnist - Communicator
  Conference Planner - Consultant - Curator - Digital Preservation Expert
  Documentation Specialist - Editor - Elderly Care Advisor - Ethnic Specialist
  Expert Witness - Family Historian - Family Relationship Expert - Genealogist
  Geneticist - Heritage Specialist - Indexer - Inheritance Researcher - Instructor
  Internet Researcher - Kinship Specialist - Lecturer - Librarian - Lineage Specialist
  Local Historian - Oral Historian - Personal Resource Specialist - Photographer
  Professor - Publisher - Recorder - Rehabilitation Aide - Reference Consultant
  Researcher - Reunion Planner - Social Touring Specialist - Society Historian
  Student - Surname Specialist - Teacher - Tech Expert - Translator - Web Designer
  Webmaster - Writer.
Become a Genealogist
    Get paid to research family histories.
Freelance Genealogy Jobs Online - Upwork
  - Genealogist Jobs - Certifications for Genealogy, Pay, Career Resources
Genealogist Jobs (NOW HIRING) | ZipRecruiter
Genealogy as a Career - Society of Genealogists (pdf)
  - Genealogy Jobs, Employment |
  - Genealogy Jobs | LinkedIn
genealogy Jobs |
  - Genealogy Studies Career: Job Description & Requirements
  - Guidelines for Starting a Genealogy Business
How to Become a Genealogist | Academic Invest
How to Become a Professional Genealogist -
  - Job Search Results that include the keyword "genealogy"
    - Jobs with Part-Time, Telecommuting, or Flexible Working
  - Genealogy
Search Jobs | Ancestry Corporate
  - Transitional-Genealogists-Forum-L
  Help other interested organizations and individuals easily find information
  on current issues in international academic and professional mobility,
  and on procedures for the recognition of foreign qualifications.
Featured Insights · Forrester
  Making leaders successful every day.

Knowledge@Wharton High School
  Online journal for students interested in finding out more
  about the world of business.  Explore feature stories about
  teen-run companies and business trends; read articles on
  how the economy works and how careers take shape; listen
  to and view audio and video podcasts spotlighting business’s
  most creative and colorful characters in fields like sports,
  entertainment, retail and hi-tech.
Globalization 'Defines the Modern World' - KWHS
* Licensure
  - Licensing Sources in (USA) State Agency Databases
Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations
  Occupational Outlook Handbook : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Career Resources | AHA
    Historians as consultants and contractors. (
Genealogists, See: Historians
Genetic Counselors
  - Librarians
Survey Researchers

American Society of Genealogists
  Recognition of genealogy as a serious subject of research
  in the historical and social fields of learning.
AncestryProGenealogists - Trusted Family History Research: Hiring a Genealogist
* ASGRA - The Association of Scottish Genealogists and Researchers in Archives
* Association of Professional Genealogists: Directory
* Board for Certification of Genealogists:
  Promoting a uniform standard of competence for genealogical practitioners
Category:Genealogists - Wikipedia: Thomas Milton Tinney Sr.
  - American Genealogists: . . . Source Wikipedia, Books LLC - Google™ Books
* Category:Professional Genealogists Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki
  - Hiring a Professional Researcher Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki
    - Cost to Hire a Genealogist Near Me - Hiring Rates & Fees
Cyndi's List - Professionals, Volunteers & Other Research Services
  - Professionals A-Z

* Genealogy Freelancers
  Affordable International Professional Genealogists; ancestry research.
* genealogyDOTcoach
  Online family history coaching.
* Global Speakers Federation
  Advancing and connecting professional speaking associations worldwide.
  - National Speakers Association (NSA): Speaker Magazine
    Where professional speakers connect.
SpeakerNet News
Genealogical Speakers Guild
Speakerpedia, Discover & Follow a World of Compelling Voices
Genealogy Speakers - Speakerpedia
* Great Aunty Alice's Researchers
  Family history researchers based across the UK and around the world.
* ICAPGen™
  The International Commission for the Accreditation of Professional Genealogists.
  - Find an AG® Professional | ICAPGen™
* Legacy Tree Genealogists
  Genealogists & Genealogy Research Services.
Professional Research – eXpertGenealogy
Record Click - Professional Genealogists
Register of Qualified Genealogists
  United Kingdom list of professional qualified genealogists.
Society of Australian Genealogists
  Trace: Your family tree in a custom family history book.
  Over 4,000 researchers in over 90 countries.
  - (World's largest family history research firm.)
* WORLD: Find a "genealogist"; use "genealogists" and "family historian",
  or, other key words, in
Google™ Maps.
  - Finding People Through Facebook® Graph Search - Bates InfoTips
    - Research Clinic - List of Facebook Graph Search Operators 2018
Yelp: [Search for genealogist, etc., near you, or where research is to be done.]
- Browse Over 200 Cities on Yelp, all around the World.
* YouTube™: genealogists

Cyndi's List - Occupations
* Dictionary of Occupational Terms
  Based on the Classification of Occupations used in the Census of Population, 1921.
* Dictionary of Old Occupations - Index
* DOT Dictionary of Occupational Titles Index
Guide to the World of Occupations (GWO)
  - Alphabetical List of Occupations
  - Lists of People by Occupation
Guild of Colonial Artisans and Tradesmen
  1607-1783 Dictionary
Historical International Classification of Occupations (HISCO)
  Central to history is the world of work in the past. This can be understood
  through an evaluation of occupational activities
, using an occupational
  information system that is both international and historical, simultaneously
  linking to existing classifications used for present-day conditions; thus,
  a combination of various kinds of information on tasks and duties
  in historical settings, as well as images on the history of work.
Collaboratories in Social & Economic History
    - Historical Life Courses
      Large-scale, public databases of life histories from the past.

History Of Work Information System: Links
  Tens of thousands of occupational titles from countries and languages
  around the world from the sixteenth to the twentieth century.

    Images on the world of work in the past,
    taken from various books and collections.

North American Industry Classification System: NAICS Association - Links
NAICS - SIC updates, manuals, reference files and database enhancements.
Free NAICS & SIC Code Lookup
O*NET OnLine: O*NET Resource Center - Related Sites
  Tool for career exploration and job analysis.
Ranks, Professions, Occupations and Trades
* Vocational Information Center:
  Career and technical education resources.

RESOURCES: Small Business
Management -
Topic Outline of Business Management
* 9 Proven Online Businesses (that you can start today)
* 360Learning: 360Learning blog - Learning Engagement Platform
* Augmented Data Discovery Resources (pdf)
* BBB - Better Business Bureau®
  Fairness and Integrity in the marketplace: US and
Canadian BBB®.
* BEE: Business Enabling Environment
  World Bank Group is formulating a new approach to assessing
  the business and investment climate in economies worldwide.
  - Alternative Existing Indicators
    Opening a business, operating a business, and closing a business.
  - Complementary Resources
    Five areas highly pertinent to shaping a country’s business environment.
  - Doing Business Legacy (Archive of Knowledge and Data)

    Presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection
    of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies—from Afghanistan
    to Zimbabwe—and over time. Doing Business covers 12 areas of business regulation.
    Ten of these areasstarting a business, dealing with construction permits,
    getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors,
    paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, and resolving insolvency
are included in the ease of doing business score and ease of doing business ranking.
    Doing Business also measures regulation on employing workers and contracting
    with the government, which are not included in the ease of doing business score
    and rankings.

      Reports and studies measuring
business regulations in a single country.
* Business Owner's Toolkit from BizFilings
  Total know-how for small business and entrepreneurs.
    Business plan software and free sample business plans.
  - Financial and Employment Information
Getting Started - BRASS Business Guide (USA)
    Small Business and entrepreneurship.

  - Home Business® Magazine
    Work from home.
    Where to start and grow your business.
MLM Genealogy Leads
    New genealogy lists and reports.

Small Business Trends
    Daily updates on trends that influence the global small business market.
U. S. Small Business Administration
Yellow Pages by Superpages®.com (USA)
Conferences and Event Planning: Meeting
    Directory focusing on conferences, conventions, trade shows,
    exhibits, workshops, events and business meetings.
Event Planning
    Find USA wedding hall, party rooms,
    conference rooms, meeting and event space
  - Global Meetings Industry Portal
    Congresses, conferences, conventions, incentives, meetings and special events.
    Search for corporate meeting rooms, event venues and banquet facilities.
* Entrepreneur®: Sitemap & Index
  Business news and Strategy for entrepreneurs.

Entrepreneurial Resources
  - Crowd Funding Resources
  - Start Up Resources for the Entrepreneur (pdf)

* Family History Based Education Resources
  Study history's greatest texts as sources of knowledge
  of leadership and find out how to
enable greatness.
Free Online MBA and Business Lectures
globalEDGE - Global Business Knowledge: SiteMap
* Genealogy Products and Services Market 2018-2025:
  United States, EU, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia
Google™ for Entrepreneurs
  You have an idea.  Make it happen.  Discover local programs
  and online resources to launch and scale your business.
Grant Resources on the Internet (pdf)

* Marketing:
Topic Outline of Marketing

  - AdForum

lobal advertising agency directory and creative library.
    Technology foundation for digital advertising.
eMarketing MiniGuide
  - Entrepreneur: Marketing News & Topics
    Start, run and grow your business.

Google™ Partners
    Certified marketing consultants and Ad agencies.

    Marketing tutorials, news, how-to and resources
  - Market Research World:
Market Research Resources & Links
    General information about market research.
Marketing and Advertising - Research Guides at Columbia University
  - Portal - Global Marketing
    Marketing, market research, Internet marketing and advertising.
Advertising: RedBooks - Leading Agency and Advertising Database
Shopify Ecommerce Software
    Best Ecommerce Platform Made for You - Free Trial.
    - Ecommerce Training
      Ebooks, videos and guides that teach you to sell online.
    - Starting an Ecommerce Website
      Complete guide from Red Stag Fulfillment.
Social Media Marketing | Social Media Examiner
    Guide to the social media jungle.

* Organizational Leadership & Strategy: Top Journals
  - Harvard Graduate Certificates | Harvard Extension School
Public Relations: Oxford Analytica
Public Relations Society of America
    National and inte
rnational public relations related online sources.
    - Global Alliance
: PRSA Global Affairs Committee
PRSSA - Public Relations Student Society of America
* StartupNation
® - Build Your Business. Live Your Dream™
  Small business advice, help starting a business and entrepreneur forum.
New Normal Start Up Resources
Zoho® - Cloud Software Suite and SaaS Applications for Businesses
  Suite of online applications (services), that are free for individuals;
  some organization fees.
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Educational Exhibits about Time, Clocks, Daylight Saving & Calendars
* Current Time:
Clock - NIST: A Walk Through Time
Official US Time: UTC: Worldwide Day and Night
World Clock — Worldwide
  - World Time Server

* General Calendar: Calendar (
Calendar - GeneaWiki)
Calendar Conversion
  Module supports the following calendars:
    Gregorian (current civil), Calendar week (ISO), Julian (old civil),
    Islamic (Moslem), Hebrew (Jew - Jewish), Mayan,
    French Revolutionary, Old Hindu, Achelis', Coptic, Ethiopian,
    Jalaali (incomplete) and Kyureki (Japanese traditional with CE)
Calendar Calendar Links
Calendar Wiki: Calendrical Software
  - Calendar Zone
Calendars Through The Ages | Calendars
  - Calendopaedia - The Encyclopaedia of Calendars
Cyndi's List - Calendars & Dates
Interfaith Calendar for World Religions
Old Style and New Style Dates
* Worldwide History and Social Studies:
  - Timelines, Date Conversions & Period Resources
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BibMe: Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard
EasyBib: Free Bibliography Generator - MLA, APA, Chicago Citation Styles
Citation Builder

Creates citations for you in APA or MLA format.
Citation Guides - LibGuides at UC Davis
  Library Instruction Services, University Library - University of California, Davis.
Citation Machine: Format & Generate Citations – APA, MLA, & Chicago
* Citations & Style Guides | University of North Texas Libraries
  - APA Style (Sciences)
    Research in linguistics; human, behavioral, social, and political sciences; education;
    computer science and information management; business and management;
    also, environmental and physical sciences.
  - Chicago / Turabian Style (Humanities)
    Academic writing in history, political science, business and the humanities.
  - MLA Style (Humanities)
    Writing about language and literature,
    the arts, the humanities and some sciences.
Cite This For Me
  Harvard, APA, MLA Reference Generator.
* CiteULike: Everyone's Library
  Free service for managing and discovering scholarly references.
Citing Sources
  Documentation guidelines for citing sources and avoiding plagiarism.
  Want to know who else published on this topic?
* Cyndi's List - Citing Sources

* Genealogical Proof Standard
  - Professional Genealogy: Preparation, Practice & Standards | Elizabeth Shown Mills
How to Cite Sources -
* Make Bibliographies Easier with These Citation Apps - Make Tech Easier
* OttoBib
  Automatic Easy Bibliography Generator: MLA, APA, Wikipedia & Bibtex Citations
* Research Strategies: Internet Evaluation

* Why Bother?
  Value of documentation in family history research.
Zotero: Zotero | Downloads
  Free, easy-to-use tool, inside the web browser itself;
  to help collect, organize, cite and share research sources.
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Copyright - Patent - Trademark
* Copyright Information and International Resources
International Copyright Resources
  - List of Countries' Copyright Lengths
U.S. Copyright Office
Copyright Renewal Database
  - Understanding Fair Use | University of Minnesota Libraries
* Creative Commons:
Chapters Archive - CC Global Network
Creative Commons licenses and public domain tools that give every person
  and organization in the world a free, simple, and standardized way to grant copyright
  permissions for creative and academic works; ensure proper attribution;
  and allow others to copy, distribute, and make use of those works
Genealogy's Star:
  - Genealogy: Ethics, Ownership, Work Product, Plagiarism, and Privacy, Part One
  - Part Two: More About Ethics
  - Part Three: Ownership and Work Product
  - Part Four: Plagiarism
  - Part Five: Privacy

Intellectual Property: What is Intellectual Property?
  - Directory of Intellectual Property Offices
  - International Intergovernmental Organizations
    - WIPO - World Intellectual Property Organization: Member States
      Essential information on intellectual property by means
      of individual country profiles.  References to creations
      of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols,
      names, images and designs used in commerce.

Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, Trade Secrets Worldwide
Delphion Research Intellectual Property Network
    International and US patent search database, with
free basic search.
Espacenet – patent search

    Free access to over 110 million patent documents.
  - Google™ Patents
    Search and read the full text of patents from around the world.
Intellogist: Resource Finder - Patent Searching - Trademark Resources
    Patent search questions.  Expert answers.
ipHandbook of Best Practices
Patent & Trademark Information
- Patent Searching Database
Portal | Unified Patents
™Web and Thomson CompuMark - Global
    Search, registration, global trademark and brand protection.
    Trademark search for free and register a trademark online.

United States Patent and Trademark Office
Expanding Innovation | USPTO
Search for Patents | USPTO

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NUMISMATICS: Portal:Numismatics
* Collection of Useful Numismatic List of Starting Points
Currency & Banking
    - The Universal Currency Converter™
fxHistory® Classic | OANDA®
Historical Exchange Rates | OANDA®
    - Inflation Calculator
  - Money (
"money"): History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day
Ancient Coins: Roman, Greek, Byzantine and Celtic
      Numismatic reference for attribution and values
    - Banknote World - Paper Money Collecter
      Offers images and information on tens of thousands of past and present notes.
      Find specific issues using the Search fields, or explore notes
      from all over the globe by clicking the geographic links.
    - Coin and Conscience - Baker Library Historical Collections
      Popular views of money, credit and speculation.
Current Value of Old Money
      How much would a specified amount of money
      at a certain period of time be worth today?
Value of a Dollar: 1860-2014
Cyndi's List - Money
Historical: American Currency Exhibit
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco's American Currency Exhibit online.
Measuring Worth
      Relative worth calculators and data sets.
    - Paper Money & Bank Note WWW Directory
* Organizations:
American Numismatic Association: American Numismatic Society
    - Online Resources
Royal Numismatic Society:

WEIGHTS, MEASURES and SYMBOLS: Units of Measurement and Symbol
Cyndi's List - Weights & Measures
Dictionary of Units
  - How Many?  A Dictionary of Units of Measurement
NIST: Weights and Measures
    National Institute of Standards and Technology;
    USA Weights and Measures Division.
    Online encyclopedia that contains everything about symbols, signs,
    flags and glyphs arranged by categories such as culture, country, religion, etc.
  - World Weights and Measures
    Past and present, units and systems of units, indexes and scales.
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* 2022 Guide to Internet Privacy Resources and Tools (
Privacy Resources 2023)
  Completely reviewed, validated and updated on May 16, 2023.

* Ancestor Roots Information: Inheritance - Vital Records: A to Z Country Index
  OneSource Genealogy and Family History Searchable Databases.
  - Church Institutional - Historical Resources and Records
    - Religious Denominations
Cyndi's List - Genealogy Standards & Guidelines
  - Driver's License
  - Identity Document:
List of National Identity Card Policies by Country
  - Newspapers
  - Notary Public & Civil Law Notary
  - Passport
  - Tax & Taxation
  - Voting & Voting Registers
Association for Documentary Editing: Resources
  Links to the practice of publishing collections of writings, letters, and/or speeches.
GeneaWiki (fr): articles en français
Portail:Sources généalogiques
  Find offline genealogy records
and documents.
* Manuscript Sources for Genealogists: Manuscript Archives
Northwestern University: Libraries
  - Google™ Custom Search
    Non-governmental organizations search.
Government Information
List of Foreign Governments
    - List of IGOs: Intergovernmental Organizations
International Resources by Region
International Resources by Theme
Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organization
    - UNPO Members
  European public records and legal system.
  Public records directory; free court, criminal,
  property, business, birth, death and marriage records.
Universitetet i Tromsø
Historical Microdata around the World (1st version) (archived)
* USA: Identity Documents in the United States
Public Record™
  - Public Record Research Library (BRB Publications)
Free public record sites.  Major United States federal, state and county
    public record research guides and information manuals that explain
    how to use effectively the available databases.
  - Public Records Search:
    Encyclopedia of official state and county public records,
    with review and publication of user-contributed resources.
Birth Records
    - Cemetery Records
    - Census Records
    - Court Records
    - Criminal Records
    - Death Records
    - Divorce Records
    - Genealogy Records
    - Marriage Records
    - Obituaries
    - Public Records
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Curlie - The Collector of URLs
* ASSOCIATIONS: Professional indexing, classification and cataloguing associations.
American Society for Indexing: A – Z Index - Special Interest Groups
A B C D E F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Professional Organizations

Association of Southern African Indexers and Bibliographers
      - Australian and New Zealand Society of Indexers
China Society of Indexers
      - German Network of Indexers
Indexing Society of Canada
NIN – Nederlands Indexers Netwerk
      - Society of Indexers (British - Irish)
  - A B C D E F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
        - Indexers Available Online Directory
* PROJECTS - Genealogy and Family History:
Cyndi's List - Transcribing, Abstracting, Extracting & Indexing
  - Genealogy Indexer
Indexing Overview: FamilySearch Indexing (Español) - Indexation de FamilySearch
    Preserving Family Heritage: Join thousands of other volunteers who are finding
    and preserving worldwide family history; free worldwide access to the indexes.
    - FamilySearch™ Indexing: Partner Projects
      Free family history and genealogy records
    - Find an Indexing Project —
      - 26 Best Images About Indexing Basics on Pinterest
Getting into Indexing
        Indexing lets everyone help one another with family history.
New Explore Historical Images Tool for Searching Records • FamilySearch
World Archives Project -

Free historical record collections with searchable record indexes.
Indexing Partners
List and Index Society
    Serving and representing the British historical community
  - Places Journal: Indexing the World of Tomorrow
    How the 1939 World’s Fair anticipated our current obsession
    with urban data science and “smart” cities.
  - The Indexer - The International Journal of Indexing
    Periodical devoted specifically to all aspects of indexing.
Contents of Past Issues by Category
Indexes Reviewed
Indexes and Databases | Rutgers University Libraries
JOURN X477 Indexing: Theory and Application
    UC Berkeley Extension.
  - Week 5 Lessons - Lesson 5.5: Web Indexing
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign | Coursera.

School of Library, Archival and Information Studies - UBC
CINDEX Indexing Software for Windows and Mac
    Indexing & Index Conversion Services.
Macrex Indexing Program
SKY Software
* WEB (WWW - INTERNET): Search Engine Indexing - Web Indexing
  - Digital Data & Trends for Every Country in the World
  - Digital Publications Indexing SIG of American Society for Indexing
Resources for Indexers on Digital Publications Indexing
GenDex Network
    Genealogical index searches for persons in family trees on the internet.
  - Google, Google Scholar, and Library Database Comparisons
    Choosing & Using Library Databases - Research Guides at Rider University.
  - HTML Indexer™: Site Index

    Professional's tool for creating and maintaining real indexes for web sites,
    intranets, HTML Help, JavaHelp and other HTML documents.

Creating a public Internet index.
    The size of the World Wide Web (The Internet).

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41+ Free Family Tree Templates (Word, Excel, PDF) ᐅ TemplateLab
* Ahnentafel Charts
* Cousin
Cyndi's List - Cousins & Kinship
Free Genealogy Charts
* Genealogical Charts & Family Trees Online

Kinship: Kinship Glossary: Symbols, Terms & Concepts (archived)
Kinship Degree Systems
  - Systematic Kinship Terminologies
Martha Stewart: Scrapbooking and Memorykeeping Crafts (Pinterest)
  - Make a Family Tree - Birds of a Feather, Etc.
    Different types of creative family trees.
* Pedigree & Lineage Networking: Family Trees
Tree Seek
  Create a quality family history chart, using the unverified data from
  FamilySearch.  Validate all charts created quickly with your mouse.

WayBack . Family Ties | PBS KIDS GO!
Grow A Tree
    Online and downloadable versions.
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BBC - Family History - Record Sheets
* BYU Family History Library: Print Forms & Research Helps
Charts for Reference in Genealogy Research
* Cyndi's List - Supplies, Charts, Forms, Etc.
* Family History Research Wiki - Tools | Organize Your Genealogy
Family Tree Magazine - Free Genealogy Forms
* Foreign Languages: Translations & Translators
* Free Family Tree Template:
Family Tree Templates
  Printable Blank Family Tree Chart
* Genealogical Tool Kit
  Tools for that important research trip when visiting archives, libraries & town halls.
Genealogy Toolbox - Genealogy Research Sources Checklist

Glossary: Portal:Contents/Glossaries
  - Dictionary of Genealogy & Archaic Terms

Genealogy Encyclopedia :: Genealogy Inc.
    Terminology and meanings of genealogical terms.
  - Genealogy Quest: Glossaries
  - Glossary
A B C D E F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Glossary of Genealogical Terms
A B C D E F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  - The TAO of Topic Maps

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Historical records appear immediately after the appearance of writing, in all socially
connected societies, since the time of Adam and Eve.  Oral history derives from area
geographical population "islands", devoid of advanced civilization, both in ancient
and modern times.  When oral history is later recorded, the "oral history" is no longer
"oral history", but established tradition handed down from generation to generation.
All "preliterate societies" are actually branches, (oral societies are then "post literate"
societies), the linguistic degenerated sub sets of older civilizations from which they
came or out migrated, due to wars and other contentions (from Egypt, Mesopotamia,
China, the Hebrew Biblical ancestry, etc.).  Modern genealogical research findings
reveal a similar pattern wherein approximately one-third of the world's secluded
populations are illiterate.

The nature and history of human language, by definition, requires the subject
to be limited to records produced by humans; i.e., the preserved genealogies
and associated documents, rather than modern speculative theories.  The basic
thrust of all primary ancient centers of civilization has recognition of religious
authority and ethical lessons, associated with administrative secular documents.
History is properly concerned with causality, or why a certain outcome happened
and how it is linked to earlier events.  History teaches that the world's writing systems
have not been independent of immediate, ongoing, factual group conflicts that create
generational illiteracy, unconnected to any linguistic epochs.  The kept, handed down
genealogical pedigrees, fragmented and incomplete, show language corruption that
began in the 2944 - 1994 B.C. time period, altered through group regional population
movements and the subsequent family group isolation, in dynastic genealogies.

World's largest and most comprehensive directory and search engine
  for acronyms, abbreviations and initialisms on the Internet.
Abbreviations & Acronyms for Genealogy

Genealogy Abbreviations
* English and Literature: Reference Writing
  Includes book sources, dictionaries information, English studies,
  foreign languages, grammar, literary resources, reading and writing data.
* HANDWRITING: Paleography
  - Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents
    - Script, Image and the Culture of Writing in the Ancient World
Cyndi's List - Handwriting & Script
  - Cynscribe: Calligraphy Directory

    Art of fine handwriting and penmanship.
How to Learn Calligraphy Online
  - Deciphering Old Handwriting
  - English Handwriting 1500 - 1700
Examples of Old Handwriting
Guidelines for Reading Old Documents
How To Read A 200-Year-Old Document and Other FAQs
List of Languages by First Written Accounts

  - Medieval Writing: History, Heritage and Data Resource
Paleography: Online Courses | Institute of Historical Research
InScribe: Palaeography learning materials (free course)
      Free course from the Institute of Historical Research.
    - List of Online Resources for Early Modern English Paleography

Palaeography and Diplomatic | Institute of Historical Research
    - Palaeography Tutorial (How to Read Old Handwriting) | The National Archives
  - Reading Early American Handwriting (Book)
    - Practice makes perfect! New tools for reading old handwriting
  - Script Tutorials
    Paleography, old documents, and family history research.
    Languages: English, German, Dutch, Italian, French, Spanish and Portuguese.
  - Scriptorium | English Handwriting
  - “What Does That Say?” Series, Pt. I: Series, Pt. II - Series, Pt. III
    Deciphering the Handwritten Records of Early America.
* How Do I Begin To Document & File Family History?  An Introduction

* ISFHWE - International Society of Family History Writers & Editors
  - Family History Writers - Google+
* List of Languages by Writing System
* Technology Of Writing
Writers and Editors - Great Search Links
* Writing for the Web: A Primer for Librarians
  General introduction to Web content creation.
* Writing Systems and Manuscripts

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