Basic to advanced resources for students, educators and language specialists:
translators, translations, languages, foreign language tutorials.
Connect with News in Multiple Languages with Google™ News
Google™ Translate (Text and Documents]
  Upload a .doc, .docx, .odf, .pdf, .ppt, .pptx, .ps, .rtf, .txt, .xls, or .xlsx.


Family Genealogy & History Internet Education Directory™ - Wiki

SEARCH This Site

Education: Learning Languages and Resources
Major Directories & Archives -
Modern Languages

Online Translations & Advanced Search: Professional Translators
Unraveling the Origins of the Pearl of Great Price

[5 Ways to Watch Netflix &
Still Learn a New Language]

[Common Voice: Languages
speech recognition applications
Articles - Simple English Wikipedia
List of Speech Recognition Software]

EnduringVoices - YouTube™
Greetings  From  Earth - Say Hello to the World
hola * bonjour * hallo * ciao * olá * àëî * halo!nazdar! * hei
 * tiens! * guten label *
ãåéÜ * szia * god dag * powitanie *
 * àëëî * pazdrav * zdravo * konnichi wa * sha-lòm * hello *
* [International Auxiliary Language: Esperanto History of Esperanto] *
Introducing Cross-Language Record Matches | MyHeritage Blog
Langscape -- Interactive Map: Spoken Languages -- Resources
New Languages Available on • FamilySearch
Terralingua Unity In Biocultural Diversity Langscape Magazine
Wikipedia Crosslingual Category Analysis ---- Scrape Wikipedia

World News Languages:
Foreign Language News & Newspapers


DICTIONARIES: Dictionary - Glossaries by Language
* alphaDictionary Language Directory
Language resource site that offers a wide variety of language
  materials intended to help its visitors learn and master anything
  they need to know about their native language or other languages.

Cyndi's List - Dictionaries & Glossaries
* Dictionaries & Information
* Dictionaries & Language Resources (
* Dictionaries & Languages - UT Library Online
Dictionary Society of North America
  Check here for links to other dictionary societies.
Foreign Language Online Dictionaries & Free Translation Links
  Online dictionaries and free translation tools
  Language center, translator, dictionary and translation.
  Directory of translation dictionaries.
* LEXILOGOS Online Dictionaries
  Languages and countries.
* Linguee - A Gateway To The World
  Dictionary for German, French, Spanish, and more.

Oxford Dictionaries | The World's Most Trusted Dictionary Provider
  - English Dictionary, Thesaurus, & grammar help | Lexico Dictionaries
  - Spanish Dictionary & Translations | Lexico Dictionaries
  Online language dictionaries.
* Yiddish Dictionary Online

Yiddish Links
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Language Education
* FLTeach - Foreign Language Teaching Forum
  Foreign language teaching methods for all levels and all languages.
  Includes school / college articulation, training of student teachers,
  classroom activities, curriculum and syllabus design.
Global Language Monitor:
Global Language Monitor
  Documents, analyzes and tracks trends in language the world over,
  with a particular emphasis upon global English. 
Gives expert analysis on
  language trends and their subsequent impact on politics, culture and business.
* Langscape K-12 Teachers' Manual - University of Maryland (pdf): Partners
  Online portal for global language information and mapping data
  covering all the world’s known living languages. An effort to gather,
  connect, and share integrated global language and mapping information
  in a freely-accessible, open format.
* Language Resources | Oxford University Language Centre
Multilanguage Resources | Oxford University Language Centre
* Language Technology Links
Graham Davies's Favourite Websites
ICT4LT English Modules: Blog
      Information and communications
technology for language teachers.
  Non-profit educational organization that receives and re-transmits television
  programming from around the world in native languages.  These programs are
  available via satellite, cable TV and the Internet to students of language study,
  ethnic communities and anyone seeking a global perspective.

LEARNING LANGUAGES: When do People Learn Languages?

6 Fun Ways to Learn a New Language by Immersion
  Learn Spanish, French or Other Languages Online.
  Babbel is the world’s first language learning app.

Bryn Mawr College: Language Learning Center
  - Tri-College & Online Language Resources

* COERLL | The Center for Open Educational Resources and Language Learning
Defense Language Institute: Global Language Online Support System
  Service provided by the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center;
publicly available materials intended for independent learners: to provide them
  with the learning/teaching tools for improving their foreign language skills.
Duolingo | Free Language Education for the World
  Learn Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, Italian and English. 
No fees,
  no ads, no gimmicks.  A college-quality education without the pricetag.
FSI Language Courses

Language courses developed by the Foreign Service Institute.
* How to Learn a Language
Languages Bookshelf
* Languages | Critical Languages
  Foreign language skills open doors in today's interconnected world.
LangMedia: Resources for World Languages

Authentic language spoken in its natural cultural environment,
  providing interplay between a given language and its native culture.
* Language Chat Sites
  Chat with people from around the world and practice your language skills.
* Language Learning Advisor
Language learning resources, tips and advice.
Languages on the Web
  Learn foreign languages online.

* Learn a Language
  English, Spanish, German, Italian, French, Portuguese, Russian, Chinese,
  Japanese and other languages.  Learn a language or find a language course.

* Learning Languages
   Information on how to learn any language.
  Web and mobile platform for learning languages from content you love.
Lingu@net WorldWide
  Multilingual centre for language learning.
* Linguistic Funland
  TESL, ESL, EFL, language and linguistics links.
  - Languages Other Than English

* Live Lingua Project
  Learn 150+ languages and dialects for free.

Open Culture: Free Language Lessons
Learn languages for free.  Features at least 40 foreign languages,
  including Spanish, French, English, Mandarin, Italian and Russian.
  Download lessons to computer / mp3 player and you’re good to go.

Phrasebase™: Learn Foreign Languages Online
  Conversational language learning resource center and community.
Textkit | Greek and Latin Learning Tools

* Vocabulix
Free online vocabulary trainer - learn Spanish, English and German.
World Languages & Cultures
  Learn language, know cultures, visit Vistawide.

* World Languages -
Yamada Language Center

Language Link Templates
Search Results for ""Language and Languages""
Search Results for ""Language and Languages""
* All Languages - Wiktionary
  This category contains the categories for every language on Wiktionary.
  - All Extinct Languages - Wiktionary
All Language Families - Wiktionary
    - Languages by Family - Wiktionary
Endangered Languages - Wiktionary
  - Index: All Languages - Wiktionary
  - Languages of Africa - Wiktionary
  - Languages of Asia - Wiktionary
  - Languages of Europe - Wiktionary
Languages of Oceania - Wiktionary
  - Languages of The Americas - Wiktionary
Reconstructed Languages - Wiktionary
  - Wiktionary: List of Languages
  - Wiktionary: List of Scripts: All Scripts - Wiktionary
Ancient Languages Links
  Oxford University Language Centre weblinks and library shelfmarks.
List of Languages by First Written Accounts
BBC - Languages: Languages across Europe
  - Family Tree
British Library Language Resources
  Pages written by experts on collections by language
  or language group, worldwide.

* Corpus Linguistics
Samples (corpora) or "real world" text corpus.
IMS Open Corpus Workbench: Important Links
    - Sketch Engine: SketchEngine

* KryssTal : Language Families
  - Languages : Indo-European Family
Language Tools | COERLL
* Languages of the United States: Most Spoken Languages In America
  - Language Use
* Languages Online
List of Language Names
* Lists of Languages
Manuscripts by Language
Omniglot - The Guide to Languages, Alphabets & Other Writing Systems
  A B C D E F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Second Language Acquisition Bibliography
  SLABIB by Vivian Cook.

UCLA Language Materials Project: Links
  Teaching resources for less commonly taught languages.
  - Less Commonly Taught Languages
Oxford University Language Centre weblinks and library shelfmarks.
Variety (Linguistics)
  In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language
  or language cluster.  This may include languages, dialects, accents, registers,
Stylistics (field of study) or other sociolinguistic variation,
  as well as the standard variety itself.
  - Standard Language: Dialect
AlphaSearch (archived) by People Groups (archived)
Search for people groups alphabetically based on their language.
A B C D E F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
IDEA International Dialects of English Archive
      Free dialect and accent recordings for the performing arts.

      - Global Map of Accents and Dialects
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Language - Portal:Language
* Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America
Ethnologue: Languages of the World
  Encyclopedic reference work cataloging 7,099 known living languages.
  - Lists of Languages - Wikipedia
Browse by Language Family | Ethnologue
Browse by Language Name | Ethnologue
Index of Language Articles - Wikipedia
  - Summary by Language Size | Ethnologue
    Numerical tabulations of languages and number of speakers.
Bubble Chart of Languages by Proportion of Native Speakers Worldwide
    - List of Languages by Number of Native Speakers | Wikipedia
* ELRA - European Language Resources Association: Links
  - Universal Catalogue
    Information regarding Language Resources (LRs) identified all over the world.
* iLoveLanguages
  Guide to languages on the web.
Language Family
  History, status, sound system, grammar, vocabulary, writing and much more.

  - List of Language Families
  - MultiTree
* Languages of the World - Nations Online Project
  Language is the specifically human capacity for acquiring and
  using complex systems of acoustic as well as kinesic signals.
World Languages
    Where they are spoken, with language (3)
    three-letter codes and language description.

Linguistics: Portal:Linguistics - Topic Outline of Linguistics
  - Language & Linguistics Links
    World's largest online linguistic resource
    concerning language and language analysis.
Linguistic Data Consortium:
Language Resources
Linguistics & Language Glossary by Vivian Cook
  - Topical Index of Internet Linguistic Resources
List of Wikipedias - Meta
  Contains a list of the official Wikipedias under the auspices
  of the Wikimedia Foundation, for various languages.
  Test Wikipedias are listed at
Wikimedia Incubator:
List of Wikis
Complete List of Wikimedia Projects - Meta
    - Table of Wikimedia Projects - Meta

  - List of Wikipedias by Language Family
  - List of Wikipedias by Language Macrofamily - Meta
  - Regional Genealogy & Local History Research
    All English Wikipedia country articles are further combined, on a selected country
    by country basis, with key articles in the related language edition of Wikipedia,
    as attached ":" with language description.
* LLOW - Languages of the World
  Extensive description of all languages of the world on the basis of
  linguistic-genetic (language families, clusters, ...) and sociolinguistic
  (status as official language, minority language, ...) criteria as well as
  social-, geopolitical and geographical parameters (number of speakers,
  geographical extension, ...).  In addition to this literature references,
  internet-links, short texts on the individual language families and groups
  as well as text- and audio samples of individual languages.
* Martindale's Language Center
  Language & Translation Center.
  - Indigenous Language
American Indian Language Resources: Tribal List
* Open Language Archives Community (OLAC)
  International partnership of institutions and individuals who are
  creating a worldwide virtual library of language resources by:
  (i) developing consensus on best current practice
  for the digital archiving of language resources, and
  (ii) developing a network of interoperating repositories
  and services for housing and accessing such resources.
  - OLAC Language Resource Catalog
Protecting Our Heritage & Fostering Creativity | UNESCO
Resources - DELAMAN
* Rosetta Project: Blog - Links
  Global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers
  working to build a publicly accessible digital library of human languages.
  - Texts : Free Books : Free Texts : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive
WALS - The World Atlas of Language Structures: Languages
  Large database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties
  of languages gathered from descriptive materials (such as reference grammars).
Languages | UNESCO WAL
nsuring that all people have access to their cultural sovereignty.
Endangered Languages Project (Caontains information on over 3460 langusges)
    Worldwide collaboration to strengthen endangered languages.
Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages: Talking Dictionaries
Pangloss Collection | Pangloss
    Open archive of endangered / under-documented languages.
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MODERN LANGUAGES: Modern Language - Top Thirty Languages Spoken in the World
World Language Resources - Hundreds of Languages, Thousands of Products
* Language Geography
  - List of Countries by Spoken Languages
  - List of Languages by Total Number of Speakers
  - List of Official Languages
  - MuturZikin - Linguistic Maps: Linguistic Maps by Country
    Useful and practical information for thousands of
    languages displayed on specific geographical areas.

  - World Atlas of Language Structures Online
    Information on the structural diversity of the world's languages.
* Language Online: General Language Links
Links for Languages of the Wider World
  Free foreign language resources
- Arabic Language
Arabic | Oxford University Language Centre
      - Arabic Language | Semitic Language |
      - Arabic Language and Literature
Arabic Speaking Countries List
  - Awadhi Language
Awadhi Language Search
  - Azerbaijani Language
    - Azerbaijani Weblinks
  - Burmese Language
    - Myanmar[Burma] Language
  - Chinese Language
Chinese Language Links
    - Chinese Weblinks
Best Chinese Websites
      - Bing
™ Dictionary(Beta) Help: Bing™ Dictionary
        Dictionary, flashcards, text-to-speech and tools
Chinese as a Second Language
        - International Chinese Language Program

CJK Quick Start
        Chinese, Japanese and Korean characters in English Windows.
      - Gan Chinese
Gan Language
      - Hakka Chinese
Hakka Language
      - Min Chinese
Min Chinese Search
      - Min Nan Chinese
Min Nan Chinese Search
      - Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese Search
      - Xiang Chinese
Xiang Language
      - Yue Chinese
        - Yue Chinese Search
    - Multi-Database Search System for Historical Chinese Characters
      Allows simultaneous search through two million high-definition images
      of historical Chinese characters (including images of wooden tablets).
  - Dutch Language
Dutch Weblinks
  - English Language
    - BBC - Learning English
English Language Links
    - English Weblinks (
International Links)
      - English &
        Includes art, dance, music and theater.
  - French Language
French Language Links
French Weblinks
  - German Language
    - German Language Links
German Weblinks
      - Goethe-Institut:

        Learning German; experiencing culture
Hausa Language
    - Hausa Weblinks
India - Language Information Service (LIS - India)
Web based, on line, multi-media, authentic, comprehensive
    information source in the public domain on the Indian languages.

    Languages of India (
Languages with Official Status in India)
    Major Indian Languages (spoken by more than a million people)
    Lists of over ten million speakers; multi-country listed alphabetically.
Assamese Language
Xophura - Assamese Culture & Literature

Bengali Language
Bengali Weblinks
        - Learn to Speak Basic Bengali

   - Bhojpuri Language
      - Bhojpuri Language
    - Gujarati Language
      - GujaratiLexicon
Some Gujarati Language Resources
    - Hindi Language
      - Hindi Links
      - Hindi Weblinks
      - History of Hindustani
Kannada Language
Kannada Language

    - Maithili Language
Maithili: The Language | Mithilaonline....
Malayalam Language
    - Marathi Language
Marathi & English Dictionary
      - Marathi Footsteps Around The World
Oriya Language
      - Comprehensive English-Oriya Dictionary

    - Punjabi Language
Learn to Read Punjabi
Tamil Language
Tamil Electronic Library
Tamil Language In Context

    - Telugu Language
      - Telugu Literary
    - Urdu Language
Urdu Weblinks
  - Italian Language
Italian Language Links
Italian Weblinks
  - Japanese Language
Japanese Language Links
Japanese Weblinks
      - CJK Quick Start
        Chinese, Japanese and Korean characters in English Windows.
Connect and Enhance Your Life in Japanese
  - Javanese Language
Javanese Language
Online Javanese Lessons
  - Korean Language
Korean Weblinks
      - Introduction to Korean
        - CJK Quick Start
          Chinese, Japanese and Korean characters in English Windows.
Malay Language
    - Malay Language Search
Utusan Malaysia Online

Marwari Language
    - Marwari Language Search
Pashto Language
    - Pashto / Pushto Weblinks
Persian Language
    - Persian (Farsi) Weblinks
Persian Language Rare Materials  |  Digital Collections  |  Library of Congress
  - Polish Language
Polish Weblinks
BBC - Languages - Polish
  - Portuguese Language
Portuguese Weblinks
BBC - Languages - Portuguese
      - Learn Portuguese Language

Romanian Language
    - Romanian Weblinks
Russian Language
    - Russian Language Links
Russian Weblinks
  - Spanish Language
Spanish Language Links
    - Spanish Weblinks
      - Learn Spanish | Free Lessons
        - BBC - Languages - Spanish
        - My Spanish Picture Dictionary
        - Paso a paso
          Extend your Spanish textbook to sites worldwide,
          as well as do online activities, games & puzzles and take self-tests.
Spanish Language Schools
          Spanish language source for Latin America, Spain and the United States.

Sindhi Language
    - Sindhi Language Search
Sundanese Language
Sundanese Language Search
Tagalog Language
: Filipino Language
    - Tagalog Links
Thai Language
    - Thai Language Search
  - Turkish Language
    - Turkish Weblinks
Speak Turkish With Confidence: Turkish Language Association
  - Ukrainian Language
    - Ukrainian Links
      - BBC - Languages - Ukrainian
Uzbek Language
Uzbek Links
  - Vietnamese Language
    - Language & Culture
*NORTH AMERICA / Australasia
Languagegeek: Native Languages
    Provides keyboards and fonts in more than 100 Indigenous languages,
    including all of the ones in northern Canada, as well as languages
    in Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America.
  - Native Language Revitalization Directory:
Language Programs

* USA:
Center for Applied Linguistics: Site Map
    - Resources: Links to Related Websites
Modern Language Association (MLA)
    - MLA Language Map
      Display the locations and numbers of speakers of thirty languages
      and three groups of less commonly spoken languages in the United States.

Native American Language Net
      Preserving and promoting indigenous American Indian languages.
Resources - American Indian Library Association

↑ upΛ


2lingual - 7000 Languages - Index Translationum
Internet Resources | Translation Studies | Info Services
Langscape - Interactive Map: Spoken Languages - Resources
On Translation In The Ancient World - Cambridge (pdf)

GENEALOGY RESOURCES: genealogy - Definitions from
The genealogy language: Ahnenforschung, Genealogie, généalogie, genealogia,
genealogía, geslachtkunde, genealogi, genealogy, genealogical, genealogist
Category:Word List
* Cyndi's List - Languages & Translations
* - How do I change the language in Family Search?
  - How do I enter a name from a different language into Family Tree?
* Research Wiki (English)
Deutsch -
Español -  Français - Italiano - 日本語
    한국어 - Português - Русский - Svenska -

* Free Human Translation Help
  There are a number of free human translation services
  for translating more than a sentence: table summary.
Polyglot - Meet with a native speaker. Or be(come) one.
TransServ – GenWiki (German) Transserv - GenWiki (in English)
    Human translation service (for genealogy-related material only).
GenWiki - das Genealogie-Wiki (GenWiki - Genealogical Wiki)
* Jewish Web Index - Languages
  Languages related to doing Jewish genealogy research.
Latin: Latin Alphabet
  - Beginners' Latin
  - Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum
Latin Genealogical Word List
  - Latin Language & Culture
  - Latin Literature (Links)
  - Latin Names & Abbreviations
Latin Place Names File
  - Latin Words and Expressions
  - Learn Latin
Romance Studies: Romance Languages
  - Selected Resources for Latin
* TraductionsGenWeb, un service de FranceGenWeb (In French)
Translated version (English)
    All our services are free.
↑ upΛ

Language Limits by Search Engine
Current list of language limits offered by each of the main search engines.
Bing™ Translator: Bing™ Translator
Chinese Romanization Converter
* Exalead®: Web Search - Exalead®

Allows advanced refining on the results page
  (language, geographic location, file type, categories)
  but also further data refinement, such as rich content
  (audio, video, RSS) and related terms.
Free Translation Service
Computer generated translation sites on one page.  Machine translation
  systems produce a "gisting translation", a rough translation that gives the "gist",
or central idea; the essence contained in the source text.
* Google™ Translate (Text and Documents]
  Upload a .doc, .docx, .odf, .pdf, .ppt, .pptx, .ps, .rtf, .txt, .xls, or .xlsx.
How to Translate Languages With Google™ Sheets
* iBoogie™ Advanced Web Search
* LOGOS® - Multilingual E-Translations Portal
  - Multilingual Language Links
* Machine Translation
  Automated translation of natural languages.
  - Comparison of Machine Translation Applications
    - Apertium
      Free / open-source platform for developing
      rule-based machine translation systems.
  - Outline of Natural Language Processing
Natural Language Processing Toolkits
* MSN® Worldwide
  Online computer assisted translation tool, neural machine translation,
  and artificial intelligence platform for 2000+ African languages and accents.
* SearchEngineZ: Translate the Web
  Select resources for serious searchers.
* Top Search Engines: Translation Research Services
14 Tips for Building a Multilingual Social Media Presence
About Tweet Translation (X)
  - Amazon Translate | AWS News Blog
  - Baidu Translation, Baidu Content Guide |
Guide to Language Translation for Multilingual Social Media
  - How Do I Get the Translate Facebook® app? | Facebook® Help Center
  - Language Support in Voice Assistants Compared (Updated for 2021)
    - Discover Samsung’s Real-time Translator App That Converts Any Language
Google™ Translate vs Siri: Which Is The Best For Translation?
      - ‎iTranslate Translator on the App Store
  - Microsoft Translator Blog
TED Translators: TED Translators on Social Media - TED Translators Wiki
    - Social Media Language Translators
  - Top 10 Free Language Translation Apps for Android and iOS
  - Translate | Google™ Blog
  - Translate the Web | The Firefox Frontier
  - Translations | DuckDuckGo Help Pages
  - Yandex.Translate
    Dictionary and online translation between English and over 90 other languages.
YouTube Tools to Translate Your Content - YouTube Help
* Translate | Tradukka
Currency Converter | Tradukka
Definitions | Tradukka
Mutiple Translations | Tradukka
Unit Conversion | Tradukka
* Translation Map / What Is It?
  Connecting people together over the Internet, to facilitate
  a re-writing process, that will produce collaborative
  translations and geographically-based messaging.
* Translation Tools Online Free
Translators Without Borders: Red T

Exchange best practices and tools; discuss how to improve them.
    Free wiki to translate words and sentences.
Word2Word Language Resources & Translating Chat
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PROFESSIONAL TRANSLATORS: International Federation of Translators: FIT
* Accredited Language Services – Professional Translation Services
  - Countries Around the World
    Languages and population, facts, geographic information and resources.
* Auerbach International
  Language translation service, websites, videos, software, and marketing.
ATA - American Translators Association
  Translators, interpreters, translation and interpreting
Directory of Translation and Interpreting Services: Search
  - Directory of Language Services Companies:
Capita Translation and Interpreting
Translation company, interpreting and localisation
CIA Web Site — Central Intelligence Agency
  - Foreign Language
    The ability to speak, read, and translate foreign languages,
    in addition to understanding cultural differences, is vital
    to the mission of the CIA. . . . From the hundreds of languages
    that are spoken around the world, CIA has identified
    the following languages . . . (as) qualifying languages:
    [Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani
    Baluchi Bengali Bosnian Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian (Khmer)
    Cebuano Chechen Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dari Dutch
    Estonian Ewe Finnish Flemish French Georgian German Greek Gujarati
    Haitian Creole Hausa Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Igbo (Ibo) Indonesian
    Italian Japanese Javanese Kazakh Kirghiz Kissi Korean Kurdish
    Lao Latvian (Lettish) Lingala Lithuanian Macedonian Malay
    Malayalam Marathi Mongolian Nepali Norwegian Panjabi (Punjabi)
    Pashto Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Sindhi
    Slovak Slovenian Somali Spanish Swahili (Kiswahili) Swedish
    Tagalog Tajik Tamil Tausug Telugu Thai Tibetan Tigrinya Turkish
    Turkmen Uygur Ukrainian Urdu Uzbek Vietnamese Yoruba Zulu]
How Many Languages is it Possible to Learn? Hyperpolyglotism
  - Language Opportunities
    - Intelligence Language Institute
CIUTI: CIUTI - Members - Translation & Interpretation Links
  International permanent conference of university
  institutes of translators and interpreters
DeepL Translator
  Trains artificial intelligence to understand and translate texts.
* Free Online Translation Services
  Commercial sites that are providing free language translation.
* Free Translation & Professional Translation Services
Translate web pages and text into different languages.
GALA: Globalization and Localization Association

World's largest trade association for the language industry,
  providing resources, education, advocacy and research.
Language Technology & Services Directory: World Map
Member Directory: Affiliates
* Gengo®
  Simple human translation and translation resources.
IMIA - International Medical Interpreters Association
  Committed to the advancement of professional medical interpreters
  as the best practice to equitable language access to health care
  for linguistically diverse patients.
International Association for Translation & Intercultural Studies
  - Useful Links to Translation and Intercultural Resources
* InterTran™ - translation result
  Translate between language pairs.
Kwintessential Ltd.: Sitemap
  Translation services, interpreters, intercultural
  communication and cross cultural training.
  - Country Profiles - Guides to Culture, Etiquette, Customs & Protocol
Free Online Translation Dictionary
* Lingotek
  Translation technologies, workflow management and community collaboration.
Name Translator | Basis Technology
  Names of people, places and organizations are often the
  most important information contained within a document.

* National Virtual Translation Center (USA) - Worldwide Data

Professional Language Translation Services India | TridIndia
* PROMT® Translator
  Free online translator and dictionary – English, German, French,
  Spanish, Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian) and Russian languages.
  Translators and translator resources.
Routledge Translation Studies Portal: Links
  Supports scholarly and pedagogical work in the field, including video
  and audio interviews and lectures, sample chapters from key publications,
  exercises, glossaries, links, and a variety of other material.
Peer-reviewed Online Translation Studies Journals
* SYSTRAN® Language Translation Technology
  Online translation, translation software and tools.
  Free computer-generated
text and website translations.
* Translation Blog - Tips for Translators | Tomedes
Best Translation Service Companies - Jan 2024 Reviews | GoodFirms
  - What is the World's Most Translated Website?
    Believe it or not, the official website for the Jehovah's Witnesses
    is actually the most translated website in the world.
Jehovah’s Witnesses—Official Website:
Translation Journal
  Publication for translators by translators; about translators and translation.
Translators’ On-line Resources
    - Miscellaneous Translators’ Resources
    - On-line Glossaries and Dictionaries
    - Translation Aid Software
    - Translators’ Associations
    - Translators’ Databases
    - Translators' Discussion Groups
    - Translators' Educational Resources
    - Translators' Publications

Translation Studies Research Guide
  Libraries at Vassar College
* Translation Wizard
  Tool which is directly connected to online translation tools.
Translator's Home Companion
  Resources on the Internet and elsewhere for translators,
  interpreters, and those in need of translation services.
  Freelance translators resources and translation agencies,
  helping translators do better business.
WASLI - World Assocation of Sign Language Interpreters
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* ArchiveGrid : Michael H. Chandler and the Pearl of Great Price : 1986 update, 1986
  - Eyewitness accounts associated with the Joseph Smith Papyri
    - Certificate from Michael Chandler, 6 July 1835, Page 72
      [Research Note: Michael H. Chandler's Certificate, stating: "This is to make known
      to all who may be desirous, concerning the knowledge of Mr. Joseph Smith, jr, in
      deciphering the ancient Egyptian hierogliphic (sic / hieroglyphic) characters, in my
      possession, which I have, in many eminent cities, shown to the most learned: And,
      from the information that I could ever learn, or meet with, I find that of Mr. Joseph
      Smith, jr to correspond in the most minute matters." This is a complete contradiction
      of the Joseph Smith Papyri statement that "The consensus among both Mormon and
      non-Mormon scholars is that the characters on the surviving papyrus fragments do
      not match Smith's translation." It is reminiscent of the warning given by the Lord,
      concerning the
Lost Manuscript of the Book of Mormon, that "forbade Joseph from
      retranslating the book of Lehi and warned him of adversaries possessing the lost
      manuscript who might attempt to manipulate the text (if retranslated) and then
      discredit the published version of the Book of Mormon." In other words, Egyptian
      scholars have "translated"
inconsistent gibberish for ancient records, placing them
      out of sync in both time frames and social relationships. This
discredits themselves.
      So, the explanation of facsimile #3 from the Book of Abraham, shows Olimlah, a
      (black) slave belonging to the prince; along with Abraham; the kind King Pharaoh;
      the Prince of Pharaoh, King of Egypt; one of the king's principal waiters; Abraham
      reasoning upon the principles of Astronomy, in the king's court. Astounding in fact,
      that the highly intellectual concepts of the heavens would be shared within such a
      very personal, cosmopolitan setting. This is gibberish distorted completely as slave
      Olimlah becomes Anubis; with words spoken by Anubis who makes protection Lord
      of heaven, Foremost of the Westerners. That a slave would converse is most absurd;
      whose lowly nakedness is shown by an apron covering only the front of the body.]
* Introduction
  The Pearl of Great Price is a selection of choice materials touching many significant
  aspects of the faith and doctrine of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
* Joseph Smith Papyri (contains uninspired commentary)
  - Book of Abraham
Book of Abraham and Related Manuscripts
* Kirtland Egyptian Papers [Research Note: "The papers have been a source
  of controversy, because the translations and interpretations within are not
  considered accurate by
Egyptologists (those studying the field of Egyptology), and
  have thus stoked questions of whether the Book of Abraham is a literal translation
  of the Joseph Smith Papyri. Some apologists of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-
  day Saints (LDS Church} have (incorrectly) postulated that many of the papers may
  have been produced by Smith's scribes without his involvement, and that they may
  have been intended as a speculative or naturalistic effort rather than a product of
  revelation." This is completely refuted by
Document Transcript:
Discourse, 7 April 1844,
  as Reported by Wilford Woodruff, Page 133. Known as the
King Follett Discourse. This
  Discourse has a specific section concerning
The Character of God; with a total of (10)
  references to His immortal Character; expounded upon in the Grammar and Alphabet
  of the Egyptian Language; and the central theme from which all the other characters
  are meaningfully identified; His Eternal Body containing a centralized fullness of Joy.
  The controversy felt by some Egyptologists and scholarly specialists comes from not
  considering the two-fold traditions of the Egyptians; one handed down through writings
  of inspired prophets, as established within the Grammar and Alphabet; and spurious
  records handed down through Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus, the daughter of Ham;
  he who sought "earnestly to imitate that order established by the fathers in the first
  generations"; as subsequent Pharaohs did claim the right of Priesthood from Noah;
  as Abraham explains in his record, his own father being led away by their idolatry.
  Both record sources, however, center on the clear merits of religious government.
  Indeed, the whole key of understanding is the central theme of the effort to construct
  the Grammar and Alphabet as it centers in the fact that God himself, finding he was
  in the midst of spirits and glory, because he was more intelligent, saw proper to
  institute laws whereby the rest could have a privilege to advance like himself. Thus,
  the very fabric of the Egyptian Grammar and Alphabet is to create a language record
  that transmitted the glory of god to weaker intelligences, for their own magnification.
  And since the greatest Joy of Eternity was to have an immortal, body and its spirit,
  the language conveyed, would ultimately rest upon the body, parts and passions
  of Ahman and Son Ahman, as revealed to mortals by the Holy Ghost; the Godhead.
  This begins with the understanding that the human body is noted as a Temple of God.
  Thus again, Abraham had his servant
Eliezer put his hand under the Patriarch's Thigh,
  to swear "by the Lord, the God of heaven and earth"; also, Abraham was circumcised,
  to remember daily, in bodily functions, that all truth is circumscribed in one great whole.
  And Four cubits: (that is from <the length> the end of the longest finger to the end of the
  other when the arms are extended: making in our measure{ment} seven feet, which is
  twenty=one inches to a cubit.); it would relate back to the body of Adam, the First King;
  and carry on down through the Patriarchal Order. through the Fathers; the Patriarchs.
  And the straight mark over or under a character, is identified as Zip Zi; i.e., all women,
  it took its origin from the earth yielding its fruit. And located at the navel; the first woman
  who bore children (Eve, the Mother of All Living); men were multiplied upon the earth;
  all above the navel, signifies above, more, greater, more glorious, the heart and mind;
  and beneath the naval signifies beneath less smaller least; pelvic area, legs and feet.]
* Mormon Studies
  [Research Notes from King Follett Discourse: When we understand the character of God
  and how to come to him, he begins to unfold the heavens to us, and to tell us all about it.
  When we are ready to come to him, he is ready to come to us.. . . All things whatsoever
  God in his infinite wisdom has seen fit and proper to reveal to us, while we are dwelling
  in mortality, in regard to our mortal bodies, are revealed to us in the abstract, and (are)
  independent of (any) affinity of this mortal tabernacle, but are revealed to our spirits (by
  the power of the Holy Ghost) precisely as though we had no (physical) bodies at all, and
  those revelations which will save our spirits will save our (temporal) bodies. God reveals
  them to us in view of no eternal dissolution of the (physical, mortal) body or tabernacle.
  This is fully confirmed by Chapter 12: Doctrine and Covenants 29: . . . "Wherefore, verily I
  say unto you that all things unto me are spiritual, and not at any time have I given unto
  you a law which was temporal; neither any man, nor the children of men; neither Adam,
  your father, whom I created." Adam is noted as patriarchal "father" of Joseph Smith, Jr.;
  indicating the eternal, infinite multi-generational authority of the Patriarchal Priesthood,]
  - The Joseph Smith Papers
    - The Joseph Smith Papers
      Comprehensive digital collection of the papers of Joseph Smith, Jr.
* Working Scratch Pad: Grammar and Alphabet of the Egyptian Language
  Grammar & Alphabet of the Egyptian Language, circa July–circa November 1835, P. 1
  [Research Note: The Joseph Smith Papers: Road to Carthage Podcast Episode 8
  Transcript, notes: "A Conversation with
Dallin H. Oaks and Richard E. Turley Jr.".
  Mention is made that: "for historians and other scholars seeking to make sense
  of the past, it is vital that we understand as well as we can the cultural contexts
  in which events occurred." . . . (much later in the discussion) . . . Richard E. Turley Jr.
  opines: "We came to recognize that probably the most difficult of our church presidents
  to tie down in terms of sources and original materials was Joseph Smith because he
  died before we had stenographers who were taking down his talks verbatim. Thus,
  "stenographers" is the grand key word, in comprehending the Grammar and Alphabet
  of the Egyptian Language; by
pondering, meditating, studying, and word reflecting.

Stenography: Where It Started and Where It Is Today | U.S. Legal Support states:
  "The most basic, ancient form of stenography began in 450 BC. But back then, it
  had another name: cuneiform. This was similar to "caveman" writing, almost like
  the Egyptians' hieroglyphics. Different from the English language that assigns words
  with letters and gives each letter an individual sound, cuneiform grouped sounds
  together and assigned them to symbols. The symbols were then assigned a picture,
  and this shorter, graphic-telling communication was not only understandable and
  easy to teach, but timely and efficient. Several centuries later, China reinvented
  cuneiform and turned it into what we now call Shorthand. The Egyptian form of
  shorthand was called
Hieratic script | Definition, Hieroglyphics, & History | Britannica.
  Thoth was the Egyptian god of the moon, of reckoning, (i.e., of historical reflective
  learning, or record keeping, as the moon reflects to the earth the Glory of the Sun),
  and of writing. Thoth was the creator of languages, the scribe, (aided by the goddess
  Seshat); interpreter, and adviser of the gods, and the representative of the sun God Re.

  Therefore, the Grammar and Alphabet of the Egyptian Language, is comprehended.
  when properly understood within the framework of modern day shorthand dictation.
  Comparison of Characters, in conjunction with the
Document Transcript, does identify
  examples of the shorthand methodology. Characters were independent and arbitrary,
  without a straight (horizontal) mark inserted above or below it. Thus, by inserting the
  straight mark over a character, it increases its signification five degrees: by inserting
  two straight lines, its signification is increased five times more. And by inserting three
  straight lines, its signification is again increased five times more than the last. There
  are five connecting parts of speech, for verbs, participles, prepositions, conjunctions
  and adverbs. Translating any character, its subject must be continued until there are
  as many of these connecting parts found in the character. . . . The character alone
  has 5 parts of speech; and increase by 3 horizontal lines, it becomes 125 x 5 = 625.
  Additionally, numerical correlation is made with Beth= <Be=eth>. This character is
  found in the first degree. It has an arbitrary sound or signification which is Beth;
  and also a compound sound which is Za, and comprises one simple sentence for its
  signification. It is only increased or lessened in its signification by its connection
  with other characters. One connection with another character, gives it a compound
  signification, or enlarges the sentence: Two connections increases its signification
  still; Three increases it still: Four increases still; and five still. This is as far as one
  sentence can be carried in the first degree. In its arbitrary sound it may have more
  sounds than one, but can not have more than five sounds (which apparently are
  related to vowels, a, e, i, o, and u). When compounded with others, only one sound.
Egyptian Alphabet, circa Early July–circa November 1835–C, Page 1 Some examples:
  From Second part of the first degree, starting with Albeth, and progressing through:
  Al / ka / beth; Al / che / beth; Al / chi / beth;  Al / ko / beth; Al / ku / beth; It is noted:
  Albeth is inserted with ka, che, chi, ko, and ku, within the word Albeth.
  So, Albeth independently has two designations, or meanings:
  First, that of disembodied spirits or Saints.
  Second, that of Angels in an unalterable state.
  The insertion of ka presents the dual concepts of:
  men after they are raised from the dead; or, Ministers of God.
  The insertion of che presents the dual concepts of: high priests; or, Kings.
  The insertion of chi presents the combined dual concepts of:
  Ministers of God; or, under, or less than high priests.
  The insertion of ko presents the combined dual concepts of:
  Ministers not ordained of God; or, sinful.
  The insertion of ku presents the combined dual concepts of:
  Ministers who are less sinful for want of power
  Then, as a second witness or written testimony, the same similar process continues
  with Ba=eth, independently, as: The name of all Mankind---man or men. Followed by:
Document Transcript: Ba-eth; Ba=eth=ka; Ba-eth kee; Ba-eth ki; Ba-eth ko; Baeth ku;
  or, Adam or the first man, or first King; The next from Adam, one ordained under him;
  The third ordained under Adam; The fourth from Adam; The fifth high priest from Adam.
  The concept of independent characters, having two designations, or meanings, appears,
  in conjunction with additional combined dual concepts or meanings; to scope the word
  definitions in form and manner, so that definitional concepts are applicable to mankind
  in life or death, from a pre earth life, unto ultimate exaltation in the highest glory degree
  of the Celestial Realms of God, and all attached glorified creations; to the depths of Hell.

  Significantly, the straight mark over or under a character, is identified as Zip Zi; i.e.,
  all women: it took its origin from the earth yielding its fruit. And from the first woman
  who bore children (Eve, the Mother of All Living); and men were multiplied upon
  the earth; used as a numeral by being inserted above or below another character:
  it increases by being drawn above, and signifies above, more, greater, more glorious,
  and when inserted under signifies beneath less smaller least. (Temple Endowed; such
  as Phah ho e oop = extension of power by marriage or by ordination, or anointing).
  It is self evident the Grammar and Alphabet was spoken and hand / body expressed;
  particularly memorized, conveyed using jointed fingers and thumb; feet and toes,
  And the pupil of the eye, the black hole in the middle of the iris; it is represented
  by Iota: the eye or to see or sight sometimes me myself; The eye, or to see, or sight,
  sometimes me, myself; Eye=to see=sight, sometimes Me, myself; see, saw, seeing
  or having seen; See, saw, seeing, or having seen or having been seen; me myself;
  adds that having been within= in the earth, includes To be with, as light is in the earth,
  and showing the denomination of languages and through what descent they continue.
  Iota nitahveh ah-que= its signification is increased from the first degree five times; for
  instance I saw five times twenty-five persons, or one hundred and twenty-five persons:
  Its signification may be lessened one half by the mark as in the margin-- and again
  lessened one half of the latter half the mark as in the margin; signification is increased
  tenfold by the mark as in the margin: Its signification is again increased one hundred
  fold by the additional mark in the margin: and its signification is a multiplying adjective.
  Locations in astronomical starting points: locate the Celestial residence of Kolob, using
  the numerical multiplication of 5, going from Beth, man's first residence, graduating up
  by 5 times to the whole Earth, (for the act of going up to going up, climbing, ascending
  towards the sun), to Eternity, as the place of happiness where God the Father resides,
Decoding the Star Charts of Ancient Egypt, (published by) Scientific American, requires
  understanding of the fact that the planet Earth is transforming through various cycles in
  the planning; birth, or creation; youthful vigor; cleansing, baptizing by water;
  or modifying over time, from a Telestial, to a Terrestrial, to an ultimate Celestial Sphere.
  The transition from a Telestial to a Terrestrial state, for example, is predicted to include
  the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall be turned into blood, and the stars shall
  fall from heaven; and there shall be great signs in the heavens above, and in the earth
  beneath; and there shall be weeping and wailing among the inhabitants of the earth;
  and there shall be a great hailstorm sent froth to destroy the crops of the earth;" (that
  which indicates tremendous and immediate climate changes with great cold and heat).
Revelations printed in The Evening and the Morning Star, June 1832–June 1833, Page 2
  And all this interconnected with the governing planets or stars of the vast Universe; or,
  in other words, the governing power, which governs fifteen other fixed planets or stars.
Book of Abraham Excerpt and Facsimile 2, 15 March 1842 [Abraham 2:19–5:21], Page 0]

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