The LORD Jesus Christ,
Jews, The House of Joseph, Gentiles and Heathens:
A Careful Study of the TINNEY Surname from Worldwide Origins.

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 Tav: Symbolic Representation of Abraham's Patriarchal Order of Family Priesthood

 TINNEY & Variations Surname Listings After The Worldwide Flood

Document Section from 4000 to 3000 B.C.
Document Section from 3000 to 2000 B.C.
Document Section from 2000 to 1000 B.C.
-- 1000 B.C. to the Birth of Jesus Christ --

A sample reference to early Tinney [and variations] surnames.


All truth is circumscribed in one great whole.  Therefore, properly understanding
correct history of past generations clarifies present life conditions and gives hope
to what the future will bring.  When doing a worldwide Surname research, one of
the problems involved is in the determination of the beginnings of record keeping.
According to revealed
history, Adam, the first man on this planet called earth, had
A Book of Remembrance. ---- He taught all his posterity to read and write, a scribal
or alphabet study written according to the pattern given by the finger of
God.  It was handed down from generation to generation.  Thus, according to Bible
teachings, Holy Scripture is a contemporary account written by religious leaders in
ancient times. 
 Lectures on Faith, prepared by the Prophet Joseph Smith, Jr. and
delivered to the School of the Prophets in Kirtland, Ohio, 1834-1835.

↑ upΛ 4000 to 3000 B.C.

Adam 4000 to 3070 B.C.
Seth 3870 to 2958 B.C.
Enos 3765 to 2860 B.C.
Cainan 3675 to 2765 B.C.
Mahalaleel 3605 to 2710 B.C.
Jared 3540 to 2578 B.C.
Enoch 3378 to 2948 B.C.
Methuselah 3313 to 2344 B.C.
Lamech 3126 to 2349 B.C.


This research study is divided into periods of time approximately one
thousand years each, beginning in 4000 B.C.  The first Prophet, Seer,
Revelator and Translator of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Joseph Smith, Jr., stated he had a revelation from God that
the earth was to have seven thousand years of temporal existence
(Doctrine and Covenants 77 ).  Many people are in doubt concerning
the age of this earth, due to incorrect assumptions from carbon dating
and geologic formations.  Carbon dating is theoretically correct, only if
the atmospheric bombardment by radioactive decay has been constant
over the ages and if, and only if, radioactivity of the elements is a constant
over time.  However, according to Holy Scripture, prior to Eve and Adam
partaking of the forbidden fruit, (which brought the seeds of mortal death
into their bodies in the Garden of Eden), there was no death;
thus, no radioactive decay.

The whole purpose of the life and salvation of the Messiah: Jesus Christ,
His subsequent death on the cross and resurrection shortly thereafter, was
to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of man.  This was done to
reverse the death process brought upon all the descendants of Adam and
Eve and all life in, above and on the earth.  Additionally, the Holy Scripture
states that the atmosphere was at the time of the profiled patriarchs, different
in composition from what it is today.  All indications are, that there was no
rainbow in the heavens, prior to the flood that covered the whole earth.  Thus,
as shown by the Holy Scripture, the process of decay and degeneration was
slower, accepting the age and longevity recorded for the early Patriarchs,
from Adam to Noah.  (See: Ancient and Modern Genealogies, by the author,
for more information on Historical Chronology or Dating Periods.)

The power of words cannot be doubted and the family Surname
ranks as the chief daily reminder of what a man or woman is, in
verbal communication.  The Tinney Surname is a good name,
preserved in the collective, recorded history of man.  For example,
one of the greatest poets of all time was
(Lord) Alfred Tennyson.

Each individual, independent thinking Tinney person, is a combination,
not only of present circumstance, but also of past genetic and cultural
heritage.  Knowing that past history makes realistic control of the present,
understandable and possible, for all future happiness.  In the ancient past,
among some cultures, a word written down was considered a powerful form
of magic, something to be acted upon for good or bad.  Today, through
the knowledge of Jesus Christ, we can have good hope beyond the grave,
and no longer live in this type of blind, miserable mystery.  "
In the beginning
was the gospel preached through the son, And the gospel was the word,
the the word was with the Son, and the Son was with God,
and the Son was of God. "

Tracing through time, the Tinney, or any other family Surname, is done by
gathering a preponderance of evidence.  This is complicated by historical dates,
which are so uncertain, as listed in various cultures.  The year 5508 B.C., was
the date given for the beginning of Creation, as used in the Eastern Orthodox
Church, from the 7th Century, at Constantinople (now, Istanbul, Turkey),
and on through the 18th Century, in other areas of Eastern Orthodox influence.
Syrian Christians in very early times stated 5490 B.C. as the beginning of
James Ussher "The Annals of the World." (pdf) (A.D. 1581-1656),
notes 23 Oct 4004 B.C. as the beginning of Creation.  According to the Hebrew
calendar, probably designed by Hillel II, in the 4th Century, (and basically used
from the 15th Century, by the Hebrew [Jewish] Nation), the year of Creation
was calculated as 3760 B.C.  The Mayan calendar, a system used on the
American Continent, gives the Creation date as February 10, 3641 B.C.

The Jewish Zohar, (R. Shimon bar Yochai [2nd Century] and his school,
the basic work of the
Kabbalah), mentions "the Tav makes an impression on
the Ancient of Days" (used to represent God or the man Adam).  That is, the
letter "T", called Taw, the 22nd and the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet,
is the Impression, the Seal of Creation, as also represented by the Hexagram
Seal of Solomon or the Star of David.  It is one of the national symbols, the
Flag of Israel, that represents the ancient Jewish identity of the State of Israel.

The Tav touches the circle of truth at 4 square points.  The co-ordination
of square and circle, the two most ancient symbols of earth and heaven,
the Universal Sign of the transformation of matter into spirit, death into life,
of time into Eternity.  The circle was one of the first three symbols used in
man's religious teachings.  It was looked upon as one of the most sacred
[circumcision] of all symbols.  In astronomy, it was used to represent [4]
corners of the earth, or 4 square points, spoken about by the Ancients.
These were the points at which the sun rose and also set when at the
northernmost parallel of latitude [Tropic of Cancer--23 degrees 27 minutes
north of the equator, at which the sun reaches an altitude of 90 degrees]
position.  Also, the southernmost [Tropic of Capricorn--23 degrees and
27 minutes south of the equator, at which the sun reaches an altitude of
90 degrees] position, in relation to the circle of the earth.

As noted in Theophoric Personal Names in Ancient Hebrew, published
in 1988 by Jeaneane D. Fowler, the Hebrew prepositional element 't',
as also Phoen.; Palm.; Akk. itti, is defined as with; i.e., God is with us.
This is similar to the variations of the Tinney surname found in the book:
A Dictionary of the Maori Language, where Tenei means this, near, or
connected with the speaker [similar to the meaning given for the Cornish
word Thynny: we, us]; and Tini means very many, a host or myriad
[endless, an attribute of God].  It appears that this idea of the source
of all light has also followed down traditionally in the Tinia variations
noted by Edward O'Reilly in
An Irish-English Dictionary, published
in Dublin, Ireland, in A.D. 1864.  The 16th letter of the Irish alphabet
is "T" , and ranked among the hard consonants.  Also,
Tenn: rude; rustic]; also, tender [as in Cornish Tyner: tender], soft
[as in Cornish Tene: sucking (too young to be weaned; Cornish Tena:
to suck)]; thin [as in Cornish Tanau: thin, slender, small, lean].
tin, s.f., a beginning, fire; [as in Cornish Tan: fire; Cornish Tehan:
firebrand; to light; kindle]; a gross, corpulent, fat [as in Cornish
tin or tion, v. to melt or dissolve, O'B.
tine, s.f., fire, a link; [the link, the constant attachment there is betwixt
the tongue (which is the fire) of the eloquent, and the ears of the audience.]
tinn, adj., sick; inflection of teann, brave, etc.
Tinne, a. meaning "wonderful, strange"; adv. meaning almost.
Tinne, s. meaning "a chain; the name of the letter 'T'."
Antiquities, Historical and Monumental, of the County of Cornwall,
published 1769, by William Borlase, LL.D., F.R.S.,
pages 103, 106; also A Cornish-English Vocabulary.]

Richard Polwhele, mentions in his book republished in A.D. 1978,
The Language, Literature, and Literary Characters of Cornwall,
Vol. 6, page 95,  that the word Tine, means "…to light."
A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, by Geir T. Zoega, lists:
Tinna, f. means "flint", a spark producing alloy or very hard,
fine-grained quartz that sparks when struck with steel.
[See:  Flint-working in the Metal Age, an article by Stephen Ford,
Richard Bradley,
  John Hawkes and Peter Fisher;
in Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 3, No. 2, July 1984, pages 157-174.
This paper considers the relationship between flint technology
and the development of metalworking in Britain.]  The concept of light
is also carried down in Norwegian.  The Norwegian English Dictionary,
by Einar Haugen, Ph.D., published 1985, p. 426, defines:
tenne V . . . light; fire, ignite, kindle . . . set off (an explosion, a mine),
start . . . switch on, turn on (electric light) . . .

Geographically, from Archaeologia, 2nd Series, Vol. 43, Tinea: River Tyne,
Northumberland, England. Ptolemy, Geogr. ii. 3,5, in using this name for the
Tay, transposed it incorrectly . . Derivation: (Walde-Pokorny, ii, 700 cites
root ta . . . ti, 'to melt', 'to flow'. With -na suffix the latter would give Tina,
cf. Old Bulgar. And Russ. Tina, 'mud', 'mire'. I.W. Cf. ERN. 426)
Meaning: 'The flowing stream'.  [See: Notes and Queries, A Medium
of Intercommunication for Literary Men, General Readers, Etc., 4th Series,
Vol. 10th, (July--December 1872), published 1872, page 20, dated 6 July 1872,
"Notices in Correspondents", H. (Edinburgh.)-- Taylor (Words and Places)
conjectures that the river Tyne
may be from the Celtic tian, running water.]

Ogham was the earliest form of writing in Irish in which the Latin alphabet is
adapted to a series of twenty 'letters' of straight lines and notches carved on
the edge of a piece of stone or wood, as so noted in the Dictionary of Celtic
Mythology, by James MacKillop, published 1998 by Oxford University Press.
Ogham inscriptions date primarily from the 4th to 8th centuries A.D. and are
found mainly on standing stones.  Ogham inscriptions are scattered throughout
Ireland, Great Britain, the Isle of Man, with (5) five in Cornwall, about (30)
thirty in Scotland and more than (40) forty in Wales.  South Wales was an area
of extensive settlement from southern Ireland.  In Wales, ogham inscriptions
have both Irish and Brythonic-Latin adjacent inscriptions.  Each ogham letter
was named for a different tree. "T". =  The twentieth letter of the modern
English alphabet is represented by tinne [Ir., holly] in the ogham
of early Ireland. "T" appears as three straight lines: "lll" above
foundation-line: _________ [druim]Holly of the Old World often had
bright-red berries and glossy, evergreen leaves with spiny margins, used
traditionally for Christmas decoration.

The letter "T" is further discussed, by William Morris, excellent editor of
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
, published in 1976,
by the Houghton Mifflin Company, in Boston, Massachusetts.  Mention is
made that around 1000 B.C., the Phoenicians and other Semites of Syria and
Palestine began to use a graphic sign in three irregular and interchangeable
forms.  They gave it the name taw, meaning "mark", and used it for the
consonant "t".  After 900 B.C., the Greeks borrowed the sign from the
Phoenicians, altering its shape slightly to give it the characteristic "T" form.
They also changed the name to tau.  The Greek forms passed unchanged via
Etruscan to the Roman alphabet.  The Roman Monumental Capital is the
prototype of the modern printed and written capital "T".  This traces the
16th letter in the Irish alphabet, the letter "T", named Tinne, and thus, the
Surname Tinney of which Tinne is a known variant, back through time to the
Hebrew alphabet letter "T".


↑ upΛ 3000 to 2000 B.C.

Noah 2944 to 1994 B.C.
Shem 2452 to 1852 B.C.
Arphaxad 2352 to 1914 B.C.
Salah (Shelah) 2317 to 1884 B.C.
Eber (Heber) 2287 to 1823 B.C.
Peleg 2253 to 2014 B.C.
Reu 2223 to 1984 B.C.
Serug 2191 to 1961 B.C.
Nahor 2161 to 2013 B.C.
Terah 2132 to 1987/1927 B.C.
Abraham 2062/2002 to 1887/1827 B.C.

Outside of the Holy Scripture, the Gigamesh legend written in Sumerian
cuneiform, mentions one of many recorded traditions concerning the Great
Flood, in which all of mankind was allowed salvation in temporal terms by
the building of an ark.  Marjorie Leach, in The Guide to the Gods, published in
1992, states that according to the Katawishi people in Brazil, Tini is the
rainbow in the East, a twin brother of Mawali (that which is in the West),
an apparent connection to Noah, the worldwide Flood and rainbow
manifestation.  The Mythology of All Races, Vol. 10, discusses the beliefs of
the northern Athapascans, or Tinne Tribes, a group of Yukon Indians
[Yukon is a Territory of Canada, between Alaska and the Northwest
Territories.].  They revere the great spirit Tena-Ranide, defined as
"Death itself stalking the earth".  This is similar to the Cornish-English
Vocabulary listed in The History of Cornwall, by Richard Polwhele,
Vol. 6, republished 1978, wherein TIN is given the meaning: "terrible".
Additionally, "The name Tinnemaha came from a Piute [Indian Tribe - USA]
legend that the great Medicine Man of the Piutes was Winnedumah, brother
of Tinnemaha, War Chief of his people", as noted in The Story of Inyo,
by W. A. Chalfant, Rev. ed. published 1980, in Bishop, California [USA].

Thomas Cleary, wrote concerning the Further Teachings of Lao-tzu ,
published in 1991, being a translation of the Taoist classic Wen-Tzu that
was written more than two thousand years ago.  The original author of the
Wen-Tzu was an advisor to King P'ing of the Chou dynasty, who lived in
the Eighth Century B. C.  The Wen-Tzu mentions real people breathed
yin and yang.  This is similar to the Egyptian concept of "breath of life" and
the Holy Scripture account that the Lord God formed man of the dust of the
ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a
living soul.  Wen-Tzu relates about coming down to the times when
Shen-nung and Huang-Ti governed the land and made calendars to harmonize
with yin and yang.  Now, all the people stood straight up and "thinkingly" bore
the burden of looking and listening, becoming orderly, but not harmonious.
Thus, "Huang-Ti, the first of the ancient [Chinese] culture heroes to be placed
in history, is honored as a student and patron of all the Taoist arts, both
exoteric and esoteric, and is credited with the authorship of the first book
ever written", having lived in the 27th Century B.C.  The Chinese calendar of
years begins from the time of his reign [The lunar calendar of the Chinese is
supposed to have begun in 2397 B.C., from other sources.].

Huang Ti was known as one of the Three August Ones.  Interestingly, Mormon
(or LDS) teachings note that Adam, the first Man, was called Michael before
his earthly physical creation.  Michael [Adam], (See: Pearl of Great Price),
helped Jesus Christ [Jehovah] and Heavenly Father, in the spiritual Creation
of this earth.  This was during the revolutions of the star Kolob, when time was
calculated as one day to God being equal to one thousand earth years of
revolution.  Thus, the notion of pre-established harmony: further organization
can only come from a source that is already organized.

George Sarton presents in Introduction to the History of Science,
Vol. III, published 1948, a list of Chinese words:
(Chinese Index and Glossary to Volumes 1, 2 and 3).
This Index includes:
ti (earth)
ti chih (twelve earthly branches)

t'ien (heaven)
T'ien chu (India)
t'ien-huang (emperor, Jap. Tenno)
t'ien kan (ten celestial stems)
T'ien shan (celestial mountains)
t'ien ti (heaven and earth)
t'ien-wang t'ang [tien] (hall of the heavenly kings,
                                           entrance hall of Buddhist temples)
T'ien-wen shuo (astronomical)
t'ien yuan (mathematical method of celestial element)
t'ien yuan shu (mathematical method)
tenno (emperor, empress)
Tenno-ki (imperial biographies)

Chinese Emperors were indicated as descending from the Ruler of heaven,
with "t'ien" [tian] the name of Heaven, regarded as male, represented in some
legends as a personal god who controls human life. The veneration of the
Chinese people for their ancient fathers is similar to the Patriarchal Order
contained in the Star of David, The Prince, namely: The Triangle up within
the Triangle down. By the flesh are we connected to our fathers of our bodies
and by the Priesthood are we also connected to our father the Gods, as noted
in Ancient and Modern Genealogies, published in 1973 by
Thomas Milton Tinney, Sr. [See also, "Chinese Hexagrams, Trigrams,
and the Binary System", by Schuyler Cammann, in Proceedings of the
American Philosophical Society, Vol. 135, Number 4, (December 1991).]

According to A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols, explaining hidden
symbols in Chinese Life and Thought, the translation of the Christian
"God" was tian-zhu = Lord of Heaven. In Imperial Titles, as noted in
The Encyclopaedia Sinica, mention is made that the most distinctive and
important of such titles is T'ien Tzu . . . , Son of Heaven or Son of God,
a designation applied to all Chinese sovereigns from remote antiquity. The
character Ti, had meaning related to lordship and government, used anciently
for God, both alone and in combination with other symbols.  Pan Yihong
published in A. D. 1997, Son of Heaven and Heavenly Qaghan: Sui-Tang
China and its Neighbors.  The hierarchical principle of the Mandate of
Heaven . . . "called for the universal rule of the Son of Heaven over All-
under Heaven (tianxia)."  It is further stated that the king leaves nothing
and nobody outside his realm (wangzhe wuwai), which included the ruler's
responsibility for the welfare of the people.  "The emperor . . . was the
final authority and source of all laws, the head of state . . ."

World Scripture, A Comparative Anthology of Sacred Texts, (1991), edited
by Andrew Wilson, declares Buddhism's Primary Principle is ti-i i, from
Mahaparinirvana Sutra 220. Nothing can ever destroy the Buddha nature.
This doctrine was taught in the head monastery among the T'ien T'ai mountains
in China, the supreme doctrine of all Buddhism, the Mahayanist Great Vehicle,
as noted in Words and Images, (1991), Chinese Poetry, Calligraphy and Painting,
edited by Murck and Fong. It was used also to indicate ruler of all under heaven,
similar to Ho-hah-oop of the Egyptian Alphabet & Grammar, meaning an
intercessor or one who has been appointed to intercede for another as in a prayer
or invocation. This idea is found in Jewish and Christian thought in the power
inherent in the Messiah, in which the Perfect One, blessed is He, by giving His
life for His friends, ascended to the irreversible state of God hood: "I AM a
God of Truth and cannot Lie". The original meaning for China, i.e.,
"under the heavens", or a term for the world in general, was T'ien Hsia.

The fact that Ti was also used as a designated term for the barbarous tribes on
the northern boundaries of China, i.e., Tartars, etc., indicates foreign origins
of this symbolism. It points to a connection with the ancient Sumerian ti,
meaning "life", shown symbolically by an arrow, or the demotic " t". The
Chinese "Te", meaning virtue, is manifest in the Semitic Middle East culture
in Biblical Mark 5:30, . . . "And Jesus, immediately knowing in himself that
virtue ["life"] had gone out of him, turned . . ." Chou, the Chinese dynasty
that ruled from 1122 to 255 B.C., is credited with being the time frame when
Judaism entered into China, as noted on the 1663a stone inscription from
Kaifeng Synagogue, in China. Shih Huang Ti [Chao Cheng], the king of the
feudal state of Ch'in in 247 B.C., assumed the title of First Emperor 221 B.C.;
then, his son, Erh Shih Huang Ti, 210 to 207 B.C., Etc. Alex Shoumatoff
mentions in The Mountain of Names, (1985), that the earliest record from
China dates from 770 B.C., with earliest genealogical scholarship noted
five centuries later, during the Han Dynasty. Rubie S. Watson and
Patricia Buckley Ebrey note in their edited book: Marriage and Inequality
in Chinese Society, (1991), that ti means legitimate heir, or younger sister
[the eldest sister was restricted to single adult life as caretaker of the ancestral
home of her aged parents]. Mention is made of the Chinese State or region
of Ti, circa 636 to 628 B.C.

Tenno, in Japanese history, was the Title given to the emperors after their
death, from 645 B.C., in traditional order beginning with Jimmu. It was similar
in meaning to the terms used for God in Chinese, i.e., T'ien for "Heaven" and
Ti for Supreme God. The Encyclopaedia of Asian Civilization has a list of
the various Tenno emperors of Japan in chronological order, the word literally
meaning "heavenly sovereign", possessing magical powers to inter-relate with
the divinities [the concept of "Priesthood"]. According to the Nihon shoki,
the legendary dynastic founder Jimmu, [Kami Yamato Ihare-Biko] the first
sovereign in the traditional count of the Chronicle, was born 711 B.C. and
died 585 B.C. He reigned from 660 B.C. to 585 B.C., with the exact date of
11 Feb 660 given for his enthronement. (See: The Six National Histories of
Japan, [1970/1990 - English Translation], by Sakamoto Taro)

The Mythology of All Races, in Volume 8, "Japanese Mythology", also states
that the Buddhist and Taoist influences were of momentous importance in the
development of fairy lore in Japan, and the primitive conceptions of ideal or
fantastic existences were by those influences made much more definite and
elaborate. In general, the Buddhist importations were of two categories, one
of which was the Devatas, or Japanese Tennyo or Tennin, the heavenly
maidens. In India, the Devatas are female deities in general, but the word is
also applied to the female genii of trees and fountains. The Japanese Tennyo,
who are copied from the Devatas, roam in the sky, clad in fluttering veils and
without wings, playing music, scattering flowers in the air. They were
perfumed ministering angels surrounding pious Buddhists.

Louis Bourguet (1678-1742), as noted in the Dictionary of Scientific
Biography, Vol. XV, published by the American Council of Learned Societies,
made a philological investigation of the Etruscan alphabet (ancient
pre-Roman Italy), and was convinced it derived from ancient Hebrew.
Louis Bourguet believed in the common origin of all peoples and languages
and questioned the presumed great age and isolation of the people of China.
He declared that the great world wide Flood was but the amplification of normal
processes and the "exceptional convergence, ordained by God, of ordinary
causes." Presently, there is scientific knowledge about continental drift of the
earth's land surface around the inner liquid core [Continental Drift is listed
on page 353, under Plate Tectonics, Academic American Encyclopedia,
Vol. 15, (1980)]. The immediate high velocity amplification of "continental
drift" would allow the appearance of the Sun to stand still, (from the command
of God given through the Prophet Joshua), as written in the Holy Scripture.
By intensive "continental drift", there would also be the appearance of the
shadow on the sun dial of Ahaz returning ten degrees backward, (by the
command of God through the Prophet Isaiah), in behalf of Hezekiah,
the King of Judah.

According to Mormon (LDS) theology (Doctrine and Covenants, Section
133: 24-25), when the Lamb of God (Jehovah or Jesus Christ), shall return
to the earth, He shall command the great deep, and it shall be driven back into
the north countries, and the islands shall become one land. This certainly is an
indication of immediate and intensive worldwide continental drift. The land of
Jerusalem and the land of Zion [Jackson County, Missouri, USA] shall be
turned back into their own place, and the earth shall be like it was in the days
before it was divided [during the days of Peleg, 2253 to 2014 B.C.]. This
statement establishes all changes of the geologic formations on the surface
of the earth within a time frame of a few thousand years.

There was no death prior to the fall of Eve and Adam and the earth and
all things created were in a state of perfect harmony. Hence, the only
statements concerning the earth being corrupt, with all flesh upon the earth
being corrupted, are mentioned during the time of the Patriarch Noah,
2944 to 1994 B.C. There were giants on the earth in those days that
attempted to take away the life of Noah, indicating from Holy Scripture,
the time frame for the development and mutation of dinosaurs and other
distorted abnormally deformed creatures. The Flood therefore was a gift
from God, a baptism of the whole earth, that saved all mankind and all flesh
also from genetic destruction or mutation. Louis Bourguet studied Hebrew
and the Mishnah with a Rabbi. The Prophet Joseph Smith, Jr. received Hebrew
language education, by the instructions of the erudite Jew, Joshua Seixas
(First American Jewish Families, by Rabbi Malcolm H. Stern, FASG).

↑ upΛ TINNEY & Variations Surname
  after the Worldwide Flood

M. Gaster, Ph.D., shows from The Chronicles of Jerahmeel , published in
1971, a listing in the family groupings of the sons of Jepheth, or Japheth, a
son of Noah of the Bible. Jerahmeel is approximately identified as living in
the A.D. 1100 to 1150 time period, dealing with apocryphal and pseudo-
epigraphical books written about the history of the world from the creation
to the death of Judas Maccabeus. A non-Biblical descending pedigree for
"the children of Zipthai, (is listed as) Mafshiel, Tina, Avla, and Jinon."

R. H. Charles, D. Litt., D.D., discusses The Book of Jubilees, in the book:
The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English,
published in 1913. He mentions it was written in Hebrew by a Pharisee,
between 109 B.C. and 105 B.C., largely based on earlier books and traditions.
The word: Tina = Tanais, or Don, appears in Chapter 8, verses 12, 16,
25, 28; also, Chapter 9, verses 2 and 7, relating to the divisions and
subdivisions of land amongst the children and grandchildren of Noah. "And
there came forth on the writing as Shem's lot, the middle of the earth, which
he should take as an inheritance for himself and for his sons for the generations
of eternity, from the middle of the mountain range of Rafa [Ural Mountains],
from the mouth of the water from the river Tina, and his portion goes
towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extends till it reaches
the water of the abysses, out of which this river goes forth and pours its
waters into the sea Meat [Maeotis or Sea of Azov], and this river flows into
the great sea.". . .

"And for Japheth came forth the third portion beyond the
river Tina to the north of the outflow of its waters, and it extends
northeasterly to the whole region of Gog and to all the country east thereof.
And it extends northerly to the north, and it extends to the mountains of Qelt
[the Celts] towards the north . . ."

"And Shem also divided amongst his sons. . ."
"And for Arpashshad [Arphaxad 2352 to 1914 B.C.],
came forth the third portion, all the land of the region of the Chaldees to the
east of the Euphrates, [Chaldea = An ancient region in southern Babylonia
along the Euphrates River and the Persian Gulf in southwestern Asia],
bordering on the Red Sea, and all the waters of the desert close to the tongue
of the sea which looks towards Egypt, all the land of Lebanon and Sanir
and Amana to the border of the Euphrates."

Since the Biblical genealogies show patriarchal descent as: Noah to Shem,
to Arphaxad, to Salah, to Eber (the Hebrews), to Peleg, to Reu, to Serug,
to Nahor, to Terah and finally to Abram [Abraham]; the promises given to
Abraham, to have the land of Canaan for an everlasting possession, appear
to be nothing more or less than an extension of the legal heir descent,
patriarchal right of inheritance, granted by Shem to Arphaxad/Arpashshad,
his son; Arphaxad being the 6th great-grandfather of Abraham.

Additional findings of the Tinney and variations surname are found in
The Decipherment of the Indus Script, published in 1982. Under the title,
"Authors of the Indus Seals", on page 293, mention is made by S. R. Rao,
that "At Tintini and Kallur in Raichur district of Karnataka, copper must have
been worked in the Harappan and Late Harappan times." The Harappan was
a pre-Vedic Indo-European speaking people, in the Indus Valley as early
as 2400 B.C. The Indus civilization had western contacts with centers at
Mundigak in what is now Afghanistan, Akkad, Babylon, Phoenicia,
Memphis in Egypt, etc.

As noted in Words, an illustrated history of western languages,
published in 1983 and edited by Victor Stevenson, the Romany number
three: tin, has an identical counterpart in the Sanskrit trini and modern
Indian tin. Robert I. Levy mentions in his book: Mesocosm, published in
1990, concerning Tini, as part of the Sivacarya ("Acariya of Siva") thar.
These were priests of the lower Brahman order, existing in Bhaktapur and
some near villages in Nepal. They made offerings of fire to Siva, the creator
god, out of which all the forms of gods are generated. Tini priests,
[similar to the priests of Aaron of Jewish history] purify households, read
verses from Veda, use Vedic mantras, and perform mock-marriage Ihi
ceremony [Bar/Bat Mitzvah similar]. Hinduism is also noted for the use of
the symbol: Star of David. The Jewish Encyclopedia mentions the Hindus,
of India likewise employed the hexagram as a means of protection.

According to Mormon (LDS) theology, Abram (Abraham), born 2062/
2002 B.C., had the records of the ancients handed down to him. Abraham
reasoned upon the principles of Astronomy, in Egypt, while at the King's
Court, sitting upon Pharaoh's throne by the King's honor. Abraham knew
of Kolob, discovered before by Methuselah. [Kolob signifies the wonder
of Abraham and the eldest of all the stars, the greatest body of the heavenly
bodies ever discovered by man, by means of the Urim and Thummim.]
Kolob is under the jurisdiction of Oliblish, Enish-go-on-dosh and
Kaii-ven-rash [Kae-e-vanrash], the three grand central powers that govern
all other creations, according to the information provided by the Prophet
Joseph Smith, Jr., as found in the Egyptian Alphabet & Grammar,
as well as The Pearl of Great Price.

↑ upΛ Tav: Symbolic Representation of Abraham's
Patriarchal Order of Family Priesthood

The impression of the Tav is the sealing powers of the First Presidency of
the Patriarchal Priesthood, as represented by the fathers Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob [Israel]. The term Zool is shown by information given by the
Prophet Joseph Smith, Jr., in the Egyptian Alphabet & Grammar, to be
written the same as the Phoenician letter "t", or "mark". Its meaning was the
same as, in almost all respects, to the sign for Kliflosisis, which parallels the
sign anciently used for the metal "tin" and the planet "Jupiter". Zool has
temporal or earthly designation going back in time and Kliflosisis, celestial or
planetary designation, [signifying Kolob in motion, 24 cubits of measurement],
coming forward, hereditary, coming down from father to son, from one fixed
period to another fixed period, or down in time.

Zool was: from a fixed period of time back to the beginning of creation; from
Abraham back to his father and from Abraham's father back to his father and
so on back through the line of his progenitors. Having the denomination of
language and through what descent they came and are to continue by promise.
Thus signifying the lineage that lawfully hold the Keys of the Kingdom, the real
authority of the First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ (Jehovah)
in all dispensations of time, by the promise of God. Having the chronology of
the patriarchs, the right of Priesthood, the promises made to Abraham, etc. It
is the power that links eternal worlds past and present and those yet to be; also,
earthly generations of the children of Man; together, centered in the Son of Man
or Jehovah [Jesus Christ].

The actual seal is the holy anointing of the seal of approval by the Holy Ghost
[or Holy Spirit of Promise], of the Truth manifested in the outward ordinances
of the Holy Priesthood, after the order of the Son of God, the Messiah of All
Mankind in Time and Eternity. The culmination of Truth in the simple faith
generated by the true ordinances of the Patriarchal Priesthood is the secret
of the Tav. Torah, rightly stated as the Word of God,
is the impression [the Tav] of Divinity.

The seed of Israel, by circumcision, is the outward impression of all truth
as circumscribed into one great whole, the Divinity of the True living Torah
of the Patriarchal Priesthood. Circumcision represents the separation of
good from all evil, right from all wrong, the spirit of discernment by the power
of God's word, sharper than a two edged sword, dividing asunder both joint
and marrow. It is eternally established by the keeping of the genealogies
of the Righteous and their posterity within the law of the circumcision.
[Genesis, Chapter 17, Verse 12. And, he that is eight days old shall be
circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in
the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed . . .]

Judgment and Law are thus passed on, generation by generation, by the power
in the Seals of the Patriarchal Priesthood. Numerically, as represented in Law
and Judgment, in the numbers 100 and 4, or one hundred times four; thus, in
Abraham's seed shall all families of the earth be blessed: If men smite your
families once, bear it patiently. Then, if your enemy smite (injure) you the
second time and you revile not against your enemy but again bear it patiently,
your reward shall be an hundred fold (increase from God). Again, if he shall
smite your family the third time, and you bear it patiently, your reward shall be
doubled (multiplied) unto you four fold (4 times increased).

Thus, Omnipresence, the blessings of the Priesthood, the "touch" of God,
100 doubled (times = x) 4 fold = 400, the numerical or absolute value of Tav,
the Hebrew letter "T". The Hebrew Alphabet character taw/tav is one hundred
times the value of the Egyptian Alphabet and Grammar "Teh". "Teh" stands
for the number "4". Nevertheless, these three testimonies shall stand against
your enemy if he repent not (the triangle within the triangle of the Seal of
Solomon or Star of David). They shall not be blotted out, but in due time,
according to the revelations of God by Urim and Thummim, it is the command
of God the Father by Jesus Christ His Son, or His Words, to go to battle
against the enemies of Jehovah.

The impression of the Tav represents the Beginning and the Ending, the alef-
beit, the beginning and ending letters, which spell truth in Divine wisdom. It is
the Father of Lights, the Master of the Universe, the Seal of Tav, or the end
and seal of all of the letters of alef-beit. Tav, the word name also meaning a
"sign" or "impression" or "mark"; in Aramaic also, "more" or "moreover", in
the sense of the selflessness in the Messiah, Heir to the Throne. The pure and
virtuous Gift of Charity of God the Father in the eternal sacrifice, of His
Only Begotten Son Jesus Christ. This is the knowledge of Eternal Lives,
embodied in the First Presidency of Godhead. The Father being the Creator,
the Son, the Savior and the Holy Ghost the Administrator of the Kingdom
of Heaven on Earth, to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of all of God's
children here upon this earth.

The knowledge of Abraham in relation to astronomical observations is also
mentioned by Artabanus[Artapanus], Greek historian, a writer of the treatise
Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, on the Jews, as quoted by C. Muller,
in reference to the writings of another Greek historian born in Asia Minor,
Alexander Cornelius Polyhistor. Accordingly, it is recorded that Abraham
came into Egypt with his whole family, to the king of the Egyptians, Pharetho,
and taught him astrology. After remaining there twenty years, Abraham
again returned into the country of Syria. Many of those who had entered
with Abraham into Egypt took up a more permanent residence there
due to the fertile nature of the region.

Abraham was noted to have been deeply skilled in the astrological science;
that he had first come into Phoenicia, and taught the Phoenicians astrology,
and then, thereafter, Abraham went into Egypt. He was also noted as a "king"
of Egypt. There is connective relationships apparent in the book:
An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, by Sir Ernest A. Wallis Budge, Knt.,
F.S.A., (1920), with:
Tena, "the god of the quarters of the moon"
tena, "venerable man"; also:
Teni, "the Aged", a name or title of: Ra, ancient Sun God
tena, "to cut, to divide, to separate, to distribute" The eldest member of the
family tribe, old age in general, the "Ancient of Days", would be the sage
having the spirit of discernment by his experience. The Judge to distribute,
to cut, to divide, to separate the good from the evil, the pure opposites in life
and death. To establish legal boundaries for a plot of ground or field, similar
to setting the bounds of Israel - - - thus,
Tentenit, the name of a serpent on the Royal Egyptian Crown.

In Ancient Fragments, by Isaac Preston Cory, Esq., mention is made
of another Greek historian previous to the Christian era, by name called
Eupolemus.  Eupolemus notes that in the tenth generation, Abraham
lived in Camarina of Babylonia [Urie], a city of the Chaldeans, and was
of noble heritage and superior to all others in wisdom. Abraham was stated
to be the inventor of astrology and the Chaldaean magic; esteemed of God
due to his eminent and recognized piety.

Under the direction of the God of Heaven, Abraham removed and lived
in Phoenicia, and there taught the Phoenicians the motions of the sun
and moon and all other things, for which reason, he was held in great reverence,
by the Phoenician King. Pliny, born circa A.D. 23 - 79, scholar, historian,
and scientific encyclopedist, born at Novum Comum in northern Italy
but mainly resident of Rome, mentions the Phoenicians in his thirty seven
book work: Natural History.  This record, considered by some as the apex
of ancient science after the time of the school of Aristotle, stated that:
"To the Phoenician people belongs the glory of having invented letters
and discovered the sciences of astronomy, navigation and the art of war."

Louis H. Feldman has the article: "Proselytes and 'Sympathizers' in the light
of the new inscriptions from Aphrodisias", in Revue des Etudes juives,
CXLVIII (3-4), juillet-decenbre 1989, pp. 265-305. He concludes that some
may have been attracted to Judaism because of their admiration for Jewish
astronomers, who, as we can see from Firmicus Maternus (Mathesis 4:
Proemium 5, 17.2, 17.5, 18.1), had a reputation going back even to Abraham.
Inasmuch as the Jewish calendar was determined by observation of the
heavens, they may have felt more confidence in it than in the Christian
calendar . . ." . . . "The Jews' reputed skill in astrology may likewise have
proved an attraction. The Graeco-Jewish historian Artapanus (ca. 100 B.C.E.)
(ap. Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica 9.18.1) states that it was Abraham who
taught the Egyptian pharaoh the science of astrology. Similar statements are
found in pseudo-Eupolemus (ap. Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica 9.17.8) and
Josephus (Antiquities 1.167).

Indeed, Hadrian (Sciptores Historiae Augustae,Quadrigae Tyrannorum 8.3)
remarks that there is no chief of a synagogue who is not an astrologer
(mathematicus), soothsayer (haruspex), or anointer (aliptes). Moreover,
in the middle of the second century, Vettius Valens, in his astrological work,
Anthologiae (2.28,29), refers to Abraham as a most wonderful astrological
authority. Furthermore, Abraham's skill in astrology is mentioned no fewer
than four times in Firmicus Maternus' fourth century astrological treatise,
the Mathesis (4: Proemium 5, 17.2, 17.5, and 18.1). Firmicus' contemporary
Julian (Contra Galilaeos 356C) remarks that Abraham employed the method
of divination from shooting stars and from the flight of birds. Since, we may
remark, proselytes are regarded as children of Abraham, himself the first
proselyte, they would presumably identify with him as an astrologer."

Merchant activities of the Jews, back to the time of Abraham, are noted in:
Journal of Near Eastern Studies, JNES for short, Vol. XVII (Jan-Oct 1958).
In the article "
Abraham and the Merchants of Ura", Cyrus H. Gordon
mentions that for some strange reason, little if any attention has been paid
to the repeated statement in Genesis that the patriarchs were in Palestine for
trading. The patriarchs went abroad to do business, as Abraham comes from
beyond the Euphrates, visits Egypt, fights with kinglets from as far off as Elam;
i.e., it is clear that Abraham was a merchant prince. Settling down in a foreign
area would be part of merchant activities of the extended patriarchal family,
to provide a sure chain of command, with bona fide and honest individuals.
Harran [Haran], was the place of Abraham's first settlement on leaving Ur
of the Chaldees, and was a trading center of great importance, as noted
in Assyrian inscriptions. [Also called Charran.] Abraham's "wandering
was not nomadism in the Bedouin sense, but was an occupational feature
of tamkarutum, 'trading abroad'. The patriarchal narratives, far from reflecting
Bedouin life, are highly international in their milieu, in a setting where a world
order enabled men to travel far and wide for business enterprise."

↑ upΛ 2000 to 1000 B.C.

Isaac 1962/1902 B.C. to 1782/1722 B.C.
Jacob [ISRAEL] 1902/1842 B.C. to 1755/1695 B.C.
Joseph  1811/1751 B.C. to 1701/1641 B.C.
Ephraim born circa 1781-1774/1721-1714 B.C.


Egypt was carrying on trade in 1849 B.C., when King Sesostris II died,
and Egypt later developed mines in the Sinai region. Stonehenge, calculated
as erected circa 1750 B.C., in the British Isles during the Bronze Age,
indicates the early scientific success in this area of the world in calculating
the movements of the sun, in relation to the earth, its moon and the planets.
The true pyramid was a representation in stone of the sun's rays shining to
earth through a gap in the clouds [of which The Great Pyramid was an
example of the method by which the king could transport himself, at will to
the celestial kingdom of the sun god]. This is nothing more than a variation
of Jacob's ladder [Genesis 28: 12], son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham,
who beheld a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven;
and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.

Later, in New Testament Christian thought, it is Paul's [I Corinthians 15: 40-44]
resurrection with celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial . . . There is one glory
of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars.
Egyptian pyramid monuments and their geometric designs, have co-connective
relationship to the monumental remains called Stonehenge, by the preserved
writings by and about Abraham. They show the Phoenician peoples carrying
the same knowledge to the ancient British Isles, apparently used for
navigational purposes while transporting tin and other merchandise, that
was similar to the Egyptian handed down knowledge preserved in elaborate
kingly tombs.  Cross-Channel Seamanship and Navigation in the Late First
Millennium B.C., by Sean McGrail, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 2,
No. 3, November 1983, pages 299-338, mentions ancient scientific knowledge
of the sun's movements, and possibly those of the moon and stars, is evidenced
in Bronze Age Britain by the alignment of certain megalithic structures, the same
information that would have been useful at sea.  The Celtic world also had a
working knowledge of astronomy, information that was needed in direction-
finding and in sea tidal prediction.

Cyril Noall, Geevor Tin Mines plc Pendeen, Penzance, Cornwall,
comments: "A bronze dagger found on the site of an old tin stream work
near Mevagissey, together with a mould for making a flat-bladed type of
bronze axe, suggest that tin was worked in Cornwall [England] during the
early Bronze Age." In the early Bronze Age, Italy, Central Europe, the west
Baltic coastland, and the British Isles were united by a single system for the
distribution of metal ware, rooted in the Aegean market (Childe, 1958).
Jewish involvement in metals is mentioned in the Biblical book of Numbers,
Chapter 31, verses 21-23, under part of the ordinances of the law which the
Lord commanded Moses [circa 1603-1483 B.C.]. In the purification of the
soldiers, it was permissible to keep gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead.
Everything that may abide the fire, "ye shall make it go through the fire, and it
shall be clean".  Emrys Bowen, an archaeologist and historical geographer,
indicates that in Ireland, smiths of the Beaker era were fashioning bronze axes
and daggers before 1500 B.C.  As Ireland had no tin workings of its own, they
must have exploited the Cornish tin mines via seafarers.  From later in the
Bronze Age, archaeologists have discovered a hoard of tin ore at Treviskey in
Cornwall, as noted in The English Channel, by Nigel Calder, published 1986.

The kingdom of the Mitanni, arising near the sources of the Khabur River in
Mesopotamia circa 1500 B.C., is noted in Britannica, 1989 edition. The
Mitanni Kingdom (Nahrina) was located between the upper regions of the
Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, of which one city in the area was Harran. They
were a feudal state led by a warrior nobility of Aryan or Hurrian origin,
with horses bred on their large, inalienable, non-transferred, landed fief.
This was a chariot-warrior caste, the elite in the cities.

Knut L. Tallqvist, [ Assyrian Personal Names, part of Acta Societatis
Scientiarum Fennicae - Tom. XLIII, 1, as so published in 1966, Georg Olms
Verlagsbuchhandlung, Hildesheim. Using as a source, JADB 8, I (19), or
C. H. W. Johns, An Assyrian Doomsday Book or Liber censualis of the
District round Harran, Leipzig, 1901], mentions a group of kings denoted as
"Mitanni", having the tanni base word. Mitanni kings represent a dialect
closely allied to Aryan, but partly in process of adopting the characteristics
distinguishing Iranian, thus a proto-Iranian dialect. Part of the deities
worshipped in Mitanni are named: ". . . ilu in-dar ilani na-sa-a[t-ti-ia-a]n-na
(var. in-da-ra na-s[a]-at-ti-ia-an-na)."

The Academic American Encyclopedia identifies Aryan as part of the language
family now known as Indo-European. This is but one of many subset languages,
from an original Adamic universal language code, distorted by the confusion
of tongues at the Tower of Babel, according to Holy Scripture.

The ancient land of Tinay is mentioned in Antiquity, Vol. 10. It is recorded
that an Egyptian Pharaoh, leading his victorious armies into Asia, in his
seventeenth campaign about 1460 B.C.; he received from the land of Tinay,
"a silver vessel of the work of Keftiu," together with vessels of iron. The land
of Tinay exported "a vessel of the work of Keftiu", a couple of generations
or so, after Tinay, [located on the confines of Southeastern Asia Minor, near
Mishrite' - Qatna], had sent iron to Tethmosy.  About 1420 B.C., Egypt's King
Thutmose IV married a princess from Mitanni, a word having the tanni base.
The marriage of Thutmose IV with his Mitannian wife, a daughter of
Artatama I, is shown by parts of a letter including: "When [Manahpiria],
the father of [Ni]mmuaria wrote to Artatama, my grandfather, and requested
for himself the daughter of [my grandfather, my father's sister], five times, six
times he kept sending, and he did not give her at all. A seventh time
[to my grandfather he] sent, then he gave her straightaway."

The number seven in the requests to the Egyptian king is part of a pattern.
It is shown in the number seven of clean beasts taken into the ark [of Noah],
of the number of times blood is to be sprinkled and Jericho encompassed.
It is the number of chamberlains, to worship seven times a day, of things listed as
hateful to God, of women wanting one man. Steps in the Temple [at Jerusalem],
seven lamps and pipes, Devils cast out, Churches in Asia, Golden candlesticks,
etc. Nevertheless, in particular, in the cure of Naaman, Captain of the host of
the king of Syria, [via Elisha the man of God], of his leprosy, in "Go and wash
in Jordan seven times, and thy flesh shall come again to thee, and thou shalt
be clean".  Censorinus, 3rd Century A.D., mentions "the number seven . . .
the Jews follow in their general division of days and so also the Etruscan books
dealing with religious ceremonies seem to declare," as noted in Greek and
Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism, Vol. II, page 415.

A funerary cone notes this wife of Thutmose IV, in a comment concerning
"Great one of the House of the Noble lady of Mitanni", coming with a dowry
to cement the political union with the Mitanni rulers. As so noted by
Betsy M. Bryan, in The Reign of Thutmose IV, (1991), column inscriptions
from Karnak refer to the Chiefs of Mitanni [wrw Mtn] asking for "the sweet
breath of life" and continue on saying that all lands sought such a favor
from Amenhotep II. Additionally, the Memphis stela of the king ends with a
description of the visitation by the Chiefs of Mitanni, Hatti and Babylon, to
request again "the breath of life".

Teni is emblematically represented in the Papyrus of Nu, located in the
British Museum, No. 10,477; sheet #19 ( The Book of the Dead ).
Samuel A. B. Mercer, Professor of Semitic Languages and Egyptology at
Trinity College in the University of Toronto, was editor in 1939 of the book:
The Tell-El-Amarna Tablets. It mentions on page 671, that Tienni is
undoubtedly a town, and is to be identified with Ti-ia-na, and notes
identification also with the Egyptian T'-n-nj. Mention is also made in the index
of this record, page 898, that Tana is a given variation of Mitanni. The name
Teni appears in connection with the Egyptian Book of the Dead. The Book of
the Dead; The Hieroglyphic Transcript of the Papyrus of Ani; the translation
into English and an introduction by E. A. Wallis Budge, late keeper of the
Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum.  The Papyrus of Ani
is the largest . . .  of the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead . . . and it
holds a very high place among the funerary papyri that were written circa 1500
to 1350 B.C. A procession "taketh place in Teni", the capital of the VIIIth
Nome of Upper Egypt. It lay near Abydos. According to the Egyptian Book of
the Dead, in Teni the dead are separated and the spirits are judged in Teni.

The Papyrus of Ani, page 428, notes: Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word
of Osiris to be true against his enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris the
scribe Ani to be true, in peace, against his enemies, with the great Tchatcha
Chiefs who are in the Lands of the Rekhti (Taiu-Rekhti), in the night when Isis
lay down, and kept watch to make lamentation for her brother Osiris.

E.  Now the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Taiu-Rekhti are Isis, Horus,
Kesta (Mesta) (Anpu and Thoth).  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of
true against his enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris the scribe
, whose word is truth, in peace to be true against his enemies, with the great
Chiefs who are in Abtu, on the night of the god Haker, when the dead
are separated, and the spirits are judged, and when the procession taketh place
in Teni. (1)

T. W. Potter and Catherine Johns mention in Roman Britain, (1992), that
scrap metal was being traded across the English Channel by the Middle Bronze
Age (c. 1200-1100 B.C.), validated by cargoes in ship wrecks lying on the
seabed. By 1100 B.C., Assyrians were encountering seafaring Phoenicians,
who were known to hunt sperm whales as well as participate in merchant sea
trade. Sperm whales, once common in the tropical and temperate seas, also
traveled north as far as Iceland and the Bering Sea and also south to Antarctica.
The schools migrating north in summer, followed by the Phoenician hunters,
appear to have assisted in the discovery of the British Isles.

The long relationship between England and France is validated in Vol. III of
An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, (1959), under Roman Britain mining
and minerals, the subject Tin. It appears that west Cornwall [England] was well
populated and in close touch with Brittany and Ireland, and after 1000 B.C.,
"they became much closer, and local finds demonstrate frequent imports,
. . . these include objects from Gaul, the Pyrenees, Numidia, Greece, and
Cyprus." A maritime perspective of middle Bronze Age trade, between Britain
and Europe, is noted by Keith Muckelroy, in Vol. 47, (December 1981), issue
of the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. The witness for past trade
exhibited by wreck-sites is in many respects superior to any other source;
suggesting, in a very real sense they are 'trade frozen in time'. Importantly,
"the evidence suggests a European-wide network of bronze exchange which
operated separately from local arrangements for production and distribution."
The Archaeololgy of Ancient Sicily, (1991), by R. Ross Holloway, suggests
under the period of the Middle and Late Bronze Age, "workmanship of the
amber beads from the Shaft Graves suggests that the finished pieces may have
come from England."


↑ upΛ 1000 B.C. to the Birth of Jesus Christ

As noted in Ancient and Medieval Jewish History, edited by
Leon A. Feldman, (1972), it cannot be denied that over the centuries,
Palestine exported not only its excellent fruits, wine, and grapes but also
grains. It is known that there were large imports of manufactured articles
and the importation of metals was a significant part of the economy. From
an economic standpoint, since Palestine paid for all these imports with
the excess of its agricultural production, maximum return on the dollar
[figuratively speaking], was also a key criteria in ancient times. The early
population of Ancient Israel, circa 1000 B.C., has been approximated as
Judah (450,000), Israel (1,350,000) and all of ancient Israel (1,800,000),
with conquered peoples (3,000,000). The City of Jerusalem was estimated
as having a 15,000 to 20,000 total population. According to Ancient Pedigrees,
compiled by Alta H. Jacobsen, [LDS FHC # Folio: 929.2 J157b; SLC, UT.],
from Cornwall, England, part of the Isles beyond the sea, came tin for the
Temple of Solomon of the City of Jerusalem.

The Ancient Tin Trade of Britain is discussed in Notes and Queries, [England],
A Medium of Intercommunication for Literary Men, General Readers, Etc.,
9th Series, Volume IV, (July-December 1899), page 516 [of Vol. 100],
dated 23 Dec 1899.  It states:
"According to M. Salomon Reinach, a well-known French anthropologist
(see L'Anthropologie, Vol. X, 1899, page 397), there was in 1000 B.C. an
overland trade in tin between the British Islands and Thrace or Macedonia.
The relations of Britain, Northern Europe, and Western Asia are proved by
the diffusion of tin, amber, and spiral ornaments and bronze implements.
Homeric Greece (800 B.C.) knew the Celtic name of the Cassiterides
or tin islands, and the phenomenon of the short nights of North Britain.
The tin was brought to the [A]Egean by Greeks or Barbarians, who sought
an [A]Egean route in order to keep the trade in their own hands.  The invention
of the anchor by Midas of Phrygia rendered this feasible. Reinach considers
that he first brought lead and tin to Greece by the north-west sea route, and
that the Phoenicians got the trade into their hands later. Leake, Hamilton
and Ramsay rediscovered Phrygia, but twenty-seven centuries ago
the Phrygians discovered Britain."  [See: Cross-Channel Seamanship
and Navigation in the Late First Millennium B.C., by Sean McGrail,
Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 2, No. 3, November 1983, page 308.]

"Patterns of Mobility Among Ancient Near Eastern Craftsmen",
by Carlo Zaccagnini, of the University of Bologna, Journal of Near
Eastern Studies, Vol. 42, Number 4 (October 1983), notes the sending
of specialized workers is well attested in the framework of the diplomatic
relations of kings of the Late Bronze Age. The skilled workers were viewed
as prestige goods, strictly bound to the organization of the temple and
palace economic structure and are a direct consequence of the process
of surplus accumulation. Usually, the juridical status of artisans in metallurgy,
etc., was of free, lifetime administrative status. Construction on the Temple
at Jerusalem was completed circa 991 B.C. Phoenician lettering has been
found on the bottom layer of stones, near the S.E. corner of the Jerusalem
Temple Mount [The Holy Temple Revisited, (1990)].

Magen David, Shield of David, Seal of Solomon; this was used from circa
1000 B.C. as an ornament and spiritual sign, similar to the magical signs on
the circular face masks found on Egyptian mummies. It was used to protect
the dead and living from evil. It was used as part of a Temple Ceremony in
sacred code, to assist the posterity of the House of Israel to find the true
path back to the God of Eternity. As noted in Historia Judaica, in an article
by Max Grunwald, of Jerusalem, "In regions of Jewish culture it appears
first on the foundation stone of the cities of Megiddo, Ezion-Geber,
and others built under King Solomon."

The Babylonian Talmud, Translated into English with Notes, Glossary
and Indices under the Editorship of Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein, B.A.,
Ph. D., D. Litt., published various years, The Soncino Press, London,
[England], Vol. 1-18, records under SEDER KODASHIM,
in Three Volumes, III,
MIDDOTH,  in consecutive Vol. 17, Chapter I, page 1,
the following:
MISHNAH 1.  In three places priests keep watch {1} in the Temple {2}--
in the Chamber of Abtinas, in the Flash Chamber and in the Fire Chamber.
{3}. . . (These three rooms adjoined the priestly Azarah or court in which
was the altar of sacrifice.)
It is further stated in The Babylonian Talmud that the Elders of the Beth Ab
[the Father's house] used to sleep there, having with them the Keys of the
Azarah. The priestly novitiates used to place each one his pillow on the
ground. They did not sleep in their sacred garments.
TAMID, in consecutive Vol. 17, Chapter III, pages 18-19,
mentions the following:
MISHNAH. . . .
They went into the chamber of the vessels and brought out from there
ninety-three vessels of silver and gold. They gave the animal for the daily
sacrifice a drink from a cup of gold.  Although it had been examined on
the previous evening, it was now examined again by torch light. Those on
whom the lot had fallen to clear the ash from the inner altar and from the
candlestick went on in front with four vessels in their hands--the Teni {2}
and the kuz and two keys. The Teni resembled a tirkab of gold and held
two kabs and a half . . .
{2} (Teni Lit[erally, means] 'basket'. [It was the name for] the receptacle
for the ash from the altar.)  The Teni was used in the process of giving
burnt offerings to JEHOVAH, the Everlasting God of Israel.
TAMID, in consecutive Vol. 17, Chapter VI, pages 33-34,
mentions the following:
MISHNAH 1. They commenced, (those who had been chosen for the incense
and the fire pan), to ascend the steps of the Porch (there were twelve steps
between the altar and the Porch). Those who had been chosen to clear the
ashes from the inner altar (the altar of incense) and from the candlestick,
led the way (This was in order to remove the teni and the kuz, which had
been left there.). The one who had been chosen to clear the inner altar
went in and took the Teni and prostrated himself and went out again.
TAMID, in consecutive Vol. 17, Chapter VII, pages 35-36,
mentions the following:
MISHNAH 1. When the High Priest went in to prostrate himself, three priests
supported him, one by his right and one by his left and one by the precious
stones. (On the shoulder pieces of the ephod [i.e., the Urim and Thummim
or "seer" stones. The garment of the priest had twelve stones, one for each
tribe of Israel. According to F. Josephus, the stone for Joseph was the
sardonyx, as well as the sardonyx stone being the stone of the Urim
and Thummim {representing the light of the Sun and the Moon}.]) . . .
MISHNAH 2. They (all the priests who had officiated), went and stood on
the steps of the Porch. The first set (the five who had cleared the ashes
from the inner altar and the candlestick) stood at the south side of their
brother priests, holding five vessels. One held the Teni, a second the kuz,
a third the fire pan, a fourth the dish and the fifth the spoon and its covering.
They blessed the people with a single (priestly) benediction. In the country
they recited it as three blessings, in the sanctuary as one. In the Temple
they pronounced the Divine Name as it is written (YHWH), but in the country,
by its substitute (Adonai). In the country the priests raised their hands
as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple, right above their heads,
all except the High Priest, who did not raise his hands above the plate
(because the name of God was inscribed on it).

With the completion of the Temple at Jerusalem by King Solomon
and Judah's attested economic surplus accumulation, comes the ancient
foundation for continuous contact with the British Isles. King Solomon
had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram [King of Tyre,
the capital of ancient Phoenicia]: once in three years came the navy
of Tharshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory and apes, and peacocks.
David W. Tandy mentions in Warriors into Traders, The Power of
the Market in Early Greece, published 1997, that the tenth century [B.C.]
relationship between Hiram and Solomon shows Hiram sending supplies
of cedar and fir trees, gold and even laborers, and Solomon reciprocating
with thousands of measures of wheat each year and other gifts. This is
corroborated by an early Egyptian historical document showing also
the import of "forty ships of cedar logs", during the reign of Sneferu.

When the Temple was completed, Solomon gave Hiram, King of Tyre,
twenty "cities" in Galilee. Hiram, though displeased, reciprocated by sending
King Solomon six score talents of gold. Homer describes Phoenician sailors
in The Odyssey as greedy characters carrying cargoes of odds and ends in
their black ships. Phoenician products included purple dye which was obtained
from the shellfish Murex trunculus. The Greeks called them Phoinikes, meaning
the purple menW. Dinan, M.A., mentions in his book: Monumenta Historica
Celtica, that tin from mines in Cornwall [England] came to the peoples of the
Mediterranean, during the Homeric epic, circa 950 to 900 B.C. Trade routes
stretched from Al Mina in northern Syria to Etruscan Italy and beyond.
The Atlas of the Ancient World, by Margaret Oliphant, published 1992,
page 84, shows there were several amber routes in the first millennium B.C.;
the main one from the Baltic went directly south to the Adriatic, while from
Jutland there were two land routes, one through the Brenner Pass to the
Adriatic and the other down the Rhone to the Mediterranean at Massilia;
there was also a sea route to Britain.  Tin, important for bronze production,
was carried from Cornwall in the west of England across to France and then
to the western Mediterranean and along the Brenner Pass amber route
from Bohemia.  Mention is also made that finds at Vix in eastern France
[Gaul], show clear evidence of trade from the Mediterranean to the Hallstatt
Celts in exchange for slaves, skins, cattle and salt.  The salt mined at Hallstatt
in Upper Austria was exported to central Europe and Italy as validated
by rich grave goods that included Italian bronzes.

The Jewish merchant class followed King Solomon's example and cemented
local protection of their Diaspora group, by entering into marriages and having
concubine contract agreements with local royalty and families in positions of
authority. The Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. XVI, (January-
October 1957), has the article: "The Problem of Ancient Oriental Shipping
on the North Sea", by B. Lundman. He states that on all the Frisian Islands
[See: Frisian and Free, Study of an ethnic minority of The Netherlands, by
Cynthia Keppley Mahmood, 1989], quite a number of people with huge
curved noses and darker coloring are found. There are also instances of a
similar type found in the coastal areas of the British Isles. These darker skin
colored people, with slightly thick lips, have almost "Jewish" noses, and convex
"Iberian, nay Assyrian profiles". Similar in characteristics to the population
of Cornwall, England with Semitic traces of the Jewish-Armenoid type.

Significantly, as noted by Fig. 4- Ancient sea routes between Asia Minor
and the North, include connections to Cyprus, the Etruscans, southern Spain,
northwest France, western Ireland, south and west England, including both
the passage through the English Channel and that around the north of
Scotland. "Mixed Armenoid types similar to those found in western Europe
exist in an area from southwestern Arabia" and along the Persian Golf,
thence east and southwards along the western and southwestern coast of India.
This continues on down to Ceylon and even a little way along the southernmost
part of the eastern coast, in Tinnevelly. [The name of an ancient non-Aryan,
Tamil Kingdom at the extreme southern tip of the Indian peninsula, as
mentioned in The Hindu World, Vol. 2, pages 180-181.]  In 926 B.C., Palestine
was invaded by Pharaoh Sheshonk of Egypt, plundering the region of ancient
Judah, Jerusalem and the Temple of Solomon, with some loss of its magnificence.

Milton Rubincam, in Genealogical Research: Methods & Sources,
editor of the revised edition, notes on page 564, that the ancient Etruscans,
who inhabited north central Italy from the 8th century B.C., were the first Europeans
to introduce surnames.  In Italy, Giuliano Bonfante and Larissa Bonfante,
show in The Etruscan Language, as published as an introduction thereto,
by the Manchester University Press in 1983, in the Glossary under Part Three:
Study Aids, the following translations are given:
Ten/= to act as
Tin/= day
Tin, Tinia= Jupiter, Zeus, god of daylight.
The Rosie Crucian Secrets,
(Wellingborough, England: The Aquarian Press, 1985), p. 209,
states that: JUPITER is Tin.

The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, notes that Jupiter is called Hor-tash-tawy,
the last word segment similar to the Hebrew alphabet letter "T" or taw.
The connection with religious worship and the metal "tin" appears in the coating
of sacrificial implements and personal ornaments with precious metals.
The god Tinia is found displayed as a man in physical form on mirrors,
with other gods. Mythologies, (1991), compiled by Yves Bonnefoy,
mentions Uni, consort to Tinia. Uni was highly venerated, especially
as the goddess of maternity. In the sanctuary of Pyrgi she was equivalent
to Ilithyia or Leucothea and was assimilated to the Phoenician goddess
Astarte. Tentinia would indicate "to act as Tinia"; the uncompounded tinia
would be "to be Tinia".  These variations indicate the later formations
in the gens of the Roman Empire of this particular Etruscan Family.
Tinia, Tentinia, Titinia, Tinius, Titinius were later modified and carried
on down in time by the alphabet letter "T" to Irish/ English Tenne/Tinne/Tynne
[for the metal "tin"], as well as other surname sources, to the present day
Tinney Surname, [going back also anciently via Hebrew alphabet origins.]

Etruscan Magic and Occult Remedies, calls TINA or TINIA the highest
Etruscan god, honoured in every Tuscan city. Invocations were made for the
power that speaks in the thunder [synonymous to Thor, God of the North,
noted by Robert Ferguson, The Teutonic Name-System, (1864), as the god
from which the Anglo-Saxon surname TINNEY originated, as well as the
designation of the day Thursday] and descends in the lightning.
He, TINIA  alone had three separate bolts to hurl.

Unto thee I commend me
That thou wilt pardon me.
If I have cursed thee
I did not do it
With ill will.
I did it only
In act of anger;
If thou wilt give me a good harvest,
Spirit TINIA
I will ever bless thee!
Tinia is mentioned as a small river in Umbria, rising near Spoletium,
and falling into the Tiber [a river of central Italy, rising in the Apennines
and flowing 251 miles south past Rome to the Tyrrhenian Sea.], as stated
in Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities.

TINIA is also found in Tuscan legends as that of a great and wealthy lord-
un milionario, the richest in all the country, a deus ex machina, or higher
power. Richard E. Mitchell, when writing about Patricians and Plebeians,
(1990), mentions that in the origin of the Roman State in Italy, plebeians are
defined in part as individuals incorporated into the Rome City population
after conquests. This was the position of the more ancient Etruscan nobility
after Roman ascendancy, of which the Titinius family has been documented
as part of the elite equestrian military establishment. One of the Tribal divisions,
of Roman/Etruscan origin was the Titienses, a name borne by the archaic
equestrian centuries, the archaic tribal military force.
[See: The Annals of Q. Ennis, by Otto Skutsch, (1985).]

Origins of the similar word Ti-ni-ia are found in the works
of Knut L. Tallqvist, Assyrian Personal Names, part of
Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae - Tom. XLIII, 1, published 1966,
Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, Hildesheim. Using as a source,
JADB 8, I (19), or C. H. W. Johns, An Assyrian Doomsday Book or
Liber censualis of the District round Harran, Leipzig, 1901, records:
*Ti-ni-ia (Ar[amaic] hypocor[istic], cf. Si-[e-]ti-ni/nu), the s[on] of Aha.
A-ha-ab-bu, which includes the base: Aha, was the name for Ahab,
King of Israel, 918 B.C., by the Biblical books of Kings and Chronicles
[revised chronologically from inscriptions on Assyrian and other monuments
to 875 B.C.]  The father of Ahab was Omri, former King of Israel.
According to The Atlas of the Ancient World, by Margaret Oliphant,
published 1992, page 30, Phoenician ivory carvings decorated the palace
built by Omri, at his capital at Samaria.

Jezebel, a Phoenician Princess, married King Ahab. He was directly
in conflict with Elijah the Prophet, the Tishbite of the inhabitants
of Gilead
.  In ancient Sumerian, Ti, was the designation meaning "life",
and the Chinese character Ti, had similar meaning related to lordship
and government.  In 1924, during excavation on hill of Ophel,
east of Jerusalem, an ostracon was discovered that mentions:
Jehizkiah of the Partridge clan from the stock of Bukkiah;
Ahijah of the Sorrel horse clan from the valley of Jeho[shaphat];
. . . iah of the Gadfly clan from the valley of Jeho[shaphat].
This list is a type of census record. It shows surname or clan
in Israel with geographic locus, going back
to the era
of: Elijah the Prophet, the Tishbite of the inhabitants of Gilead.
Additional geographic locus is noted in 1 Kings 19: 16 . . . and Elisha
the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room.

Herodotus [the "Father of History"], a Greek historian of the 5th century B.C.,
wrote that there was a severe famine in Lydia, [an ancient Aegean country
of Asia Minor].  It is stated by Herodotus that half the population was forced
leave the country in search of a new means of livelihood and a new
home abroad, ending up in Italy, as the ancestors of the Etruscans. However,
no Lydian language or archaeological evidence connections have been found
to exist, between Lydia and the ancient Etruscan peoples.  Also, as noted
in Etruscan Art, (1997), by Nigel Spivey, chronologically, there can be little
doubt about who first skirted Etruscan waters.  An inscribed Phoenician temple
dedication stone from Nora in Sardinia has been known since A.D. 1773,
and is unanimously dated to the late ninth century B.C.  It is also customary
to talk of an additional 'Orientalizing' phase in the seventh century B.C.,
when trade with the East was extensive.

According to Carlo Maria Franzero, The Life and Times of Tarquin
the Etruscan, (New York: The John Day Company, 1960), the Etruscans
called themselves Rasenna, and the descendants of the most ancient families
always believed that the Rasenna had come from the great ancient city of
Resen or RSN. This was the capital of Aturia in the land of Assyria, situated
on the Tigris River; the Rasenna traveling to Italy via Egypt [See also: Greek
and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism, by Menahem Stern, published in
three volumes, Jerusalem, (1984), for a similar identification of the Hyksos
with the ancestors of the Jewish nation.].  During the time of prophet Elijah,
the Holy Scripture states there was a severe famine in Israel.
[See: Dictionary of the Bible, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963),
editor James Hastings.]

With the execution of the priests of Baal in Israel, it appears that there
was an extensive out migration of Hebrew Baal family freebooters from
Palestine, within the time period of the founding of the Etruscan nation.
The location of the physical strike of lightning by the Etruscan God Tina
or Tinia was considered "sacred". It parallels the Biblical account of Elijah
in the death of the false prophets of Baal [in Palestine].  1 Kings, 18: 36-41,
states: " . . . Elijah the Prophet came near, and said, Lord God of Abraham,
Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that Thou art God in Israel,
and that I am Thy servant, and that I have done all these things at Thy word.
Hear me, O Lord, hear me, that this people may know that Thou art
the Lord God, and that Thou hast turned their heart back again.

Then the fire of the Lord fell, and consumed the burnt sacrifice and the wood,
and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench.
And when all the people saw it, they fell on their faces: and they said,
The Lord, He is the God; the Lord, He is the God.  And Elijah said
unto them, Take the prophets of Baal; let not one of them escape.
And they took them: and Elijah brought them down to the brook Kishon,
and slew them there.  And Elijah said unto [King] Ahab, Get thee up,
eat and drink; for there is a sound of abundance of rain."

"Tarchun [in Italy] took his omen, which was a flash of lightning drawn by
himself from a cloud-for the augur had a mysterious power over the electric
element."  Cicero records that Tarchun, while plowing, received inspired
laws of his future government from the genie Tages, a son of Jupiter. This
Etruscan tradition is similar to I Kings 19: 19, when Elijah found Elisha,
the son of Shaphat, who was plowing with twelve yoke of oxen before him,
& he with the twelfth; and Elijah passed by him, and cast his mantle upon him.
The number twelve was important in the religious and political city organization
of ancient Etruria, as noted in The Twelve Gods of Greece and Rome. It is
similar to the Semitic pattern in the Twelve Tribes of the patriarchal House
of Israel, and the later formation of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
in the Jewish foundations of the early Christian Church.

The Etruscan temples mention the idea of a covenant between God and man,
similar in nature to that of the Temple in Israel. Festus, who stated that the
Rituales Etruscorum Libri told of rites for consecrating altars, also parallels
Jewish custom of Temple dedication. Virgins expressly brought up to take
charge of the "sacred fire", is a female alteration of the priesthood divine rites
of the candlestick and burnt offerings at Jerusalem. Tarchun, "Taking a large
nail many inches long", and striking it into the side door post of the Temple
he had built with the blessing of Tinia, has duplication in the blood on the
door posts prior to the exodus of the House of Israel from Egypt, during
the time of Moses. The Hebrew Passover rite [celebrated the 14th of Nisan
(March-April)] has copy in the periodical Etruscan ceremony every five years,
when the September moon was full, and the king of the people would strike
a new nail into the door post of the temple to record that another lustrum
had passed. The lustrum, or period of five years, was passed on down
in a ceremonial purification of the entire ancient Roman population
after the census every five years.

The surname Titinius and variations is a specific Etruscan family trained
in the religious traditions of the god Tinia, handed down generation to
generation, similar to the Jewish Priesthood.  This is indicated by the
Encyclopedic Dictionary of Roman Law, by Adolf Berger, published
in September, 1953, as part of the Transactions of the American
Philosophical Society, New Series, Vol. 43, Part 2, (1953), pages 667
and 737.  One of the three tribes (Tribus) into which the population
of Rome was divided at the time of the foundation of the city was the Tities.
According to Roman Law, the Titii sodales was a college of priests
charged with special religious duties or sacrifices.  Recent Advances in
Etruscan Epigraphy and Language, Chapter 14, in Italy Before the Romans,
The Iron Age, Orientalizing and Etruscan periods, published 1979, mentions:
"it is clear that titasi is the name of the person", that titasi is morphologically
in opposition to tita, which is a female proper name in subjective function.
Reference is given on pages 397-398, to (TLE 282), concerning a typical
woman's object, a mirror.  De Simone takes the text to mean:
"I am the gift made for Tita."

Further discussion is presented on page 407, in Italy Before the Romans,
suggesting that the Etruscan origins for the Italian form "tino" indicates
earthenware pots.  Tin is found in the Index of Arabic Names, from
Moses Maimonides' Glossary of Drug Names, translated from
Max Meyerhof's French Edition; edited by Fred Rosner, Long Island,
(New York, USA) Jewish-Hillside Medical Center; published 1979 by
The American Philosophical Society. In the Index of Arabic Names,
[These are nearly all the medicamented earths introducted into medicine
by the Greeks.  The Arabs faithfully preserved the names, although it was
impossible for them to procure the earths of the Greek island.], a listing is
given of:  tin, number 172, listed under Chapter Ta', on page 122a, as:
Clay, argil.  Argil is clay, especially a white clay used by potters, from
Greek argillos. The Indo-Europeans knew metal and metallurgy and silver
was *arg-, meaning "white (metal)"; Latin argentium, silverTin was also a
malleable, silvery metallic element obtained chiefly from cassiterite.  The
Greeks enjoyed the appearance of fine metalware and armour and one of
their chief interests was the search for metals.  The Hebrew word Teni literally,
means 'basket'. It was the name for the receptacle for the ash from the altar.
The Teni was used in the process of giving burnt offerings to JEHOVAH,
the Everlasting God of Israel.  Its meaning is connected to Etruscan origins
in the 'earth', the grayish-white to black, soft solid residue of combustion;
sometimes kept by the Etruscans, in the human remains,
especially after

Information about ancient writings, from cuneiform to the alphabet are found
in Reading the Past (1990). The book mentions the Etruscans had special
regard for the dead. The family tomb was the central symbol of the aristocratic
family, including both the genealogies of the father and mother, with visual
representation of life and journey to the Underworld. Mummy wrappings of
the Etruscan people had three words: Tinsi [interpreted to mean days],
Tiurim, and avils. The very fabric of life and death, the gods and military
positioning was influenced by this name usage. Under the title of "Surnames:
Their Origin & Meaning", Debrett's Family Historian states that "Ever since
antiquity one of the chief requirements of society has been the ability to
distinguish individuals by their own name." This is the very essential foundation
of hereditary societies worldwide, as well as a key element in modern day
Mormon (LDS) Temple work for their living as well as their dead.
Introduction to the Etruscan language . . .Work Notes with Glossary

The conquering Romans derived the idea of surname identification from the
Etruscans. They developed a sophisticated system of nomenclature of three
and occasionally four or more names. Some names showing identifying
characteristics were Longus for a tall person and Rufus for someone having
red hair. Stuart A. Queen and Robert W. Habenstein, in The Family In
Various Cultures, suggest that "Membership in the Roman gens was indicated
by the nomen, usually the second of three names that a citizen commonly
possessed.". . . "The gens . . . was a group that provided guardians . . .
took over property left by members who died without any heirs; it conducted
certain religious services and sometimes had a common burial plot; it even
passed resolutions which were binding on its members."  Furthermore,
review the Wikipedia article concerning
Roman Naming Conventions.
The book: Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture
by Harriet I. Flower, published 1996, lists numerous extant Roman family trees
and interconnects Etruscan genealogy, [with its stress on female ancestors],
with the subsequent Roman traditions used in the memorialization
and preservation of family genealogies.

The Jewish practice of sending gold from Italy and all the provinces, to
the Temple at Jerusalem, is attested to by Cicero (106 to 43 B.C.).  Irish
gold ornaments, obtained by excavations at Gaza, on the Mediterranean
Sea near the Sinai Peninsula, dated circa 800 B.C., indicate the presence
of a Jewish community settlement in Ireland, established earlier according
to the patterns of mobility among ancient Near Eastern craftsmen.
Barry Cunliffe wrote about archaeological and documentary evidence
for contact between north western France and central southern Britain
in the first millennium B.C.  He states that between the eighth and sixth
centuries B.C., the communities flanking the Channel were closely bound
in a complex of socio-economic systems which resulted in the widespread
distribution of similar artifacts on both sides of the Channel.  The general
message is that a tin trade, involving the Cornish peninsula, remained
n operation throughout this time.  Traders were silent in communicating
the source of a good useful in military and civil activities.

R. H. Kinvig, Late Emeritus Professor of Geography in the U. of Birmingham,
[England], mentioned in his book published 1975, The Isle of Man, page 23,
that the western part of Britain was nearer greater supplies of copper in Wales,
western Scotland and Ireland, and tin in Cornwall.  Ireland possessed supplies
of gold, particularly in the Wicklow area, which made the nation a great center
of interest.  Of the commodities for which Britain was famous, Strabo lists grain,
cattle, gold, silver and iron.  These things, he says, were exported from the island
along with hides, slaves and hunting dogs.  Diodorus mentions tin as a principal
export, noting that it came from Belerium (Cornwall) and was taken on horseback
through Gaul to Massilia and Narbo.  [See: Britain, the Veneti and beyond,
Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 1, No. 1, March 1982, pages 39-68.]

The words of Isaiah, the major Hebrew prophet living circa 750 B.C. in Judah,
[exclusive author of: Book of Isaiah], Chapter 1, verses 7,  25, suggest improper
foreign intercourse and contact by international Jewish merchant activities:
(7) "your land, strangers devour it in your presence, and it is desolate,
as over- thrown by strangers"; also,
(25) "And I will turn my hand upon thee, and purely purge away thy dross,
and take away all thy tin."  Baal, the Sun-god and the male or generative
principle in nature was the main cult of Phoenicia, sometimes identified
with Bel of Babylon and Zeus of Greece. Since one of the basic words for tin
is bedil, there appears to be a dual meaning of Baal or Bel cult worship
represented by the word usage of the metal tin.  The destruction of the Kingdom
of Babylon was foretold by Isaiah in Chapter 13: 19: "And Babylon, the glory
of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency [the golden city], shall be
as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah." Examples of Babylonian
bronze show that anciently tin was alloyed with copper in Babylonia.

The Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions validates Praeneste bowl
(late 8th century B.C.), consisting only of a proper name, found in 1876 in
the Bernardini tomb at Praeneste [Palestrina], Etruria. The Egyptian motifs
with hieroglyphic inscriptions round the edge indicate item made in Phoenicia
and brought to Italy by traders. A relationship exists between Clark Hopkins'
review of "Astrological Interpretations of Some Phoenician Bowls", from the
Bernardini tomb of the Etruscan group, [concerning the miraculous raising of
the chariot beyond the reach of the monster, the spirit of divinity which raises
and protects the chariot], and Jewish history. The account of the Prophet
Elijah being taken into Heaven [Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. XXIV,
(Jan.-Oct., 1965)], is also similar to, in Vol. 36, Number 3, (July 1977),
"The Ascension-Myth in the Pyramid Texts", by Whitney M. Davis.
Information is given here that the messengers of your father come for the King.

In Phoenicia Magen David or the Seal of Solomon is found as a concluding
mark in a Jewish inscription [of the 7th century B.C., an undisputed sample
is a seal found in Sidon, ancient seaport in Phoenicia, belonging to one
Joshua b. Asayahu]. The World Guide to Antiquities states that Etruscan
7th and 6th centuries B.C. Bucchero ware was found from Africa to ancient
Britain, via Etruscan trade routes. Mitanni ware also called Nuzu ware
[from the Mitanni civilization circa 1500 B.C., and coming down in time],
had intricate black and white painted decorations. Bucchero, the first important
Etruscan ware [from pre-Roman Italy, circa 800 B.C.], had created red, black
and white on the Bucchero surface, with complex and elaborate human persons
and animal figures. Both civilizations had chariot-warrior nobility,
the elite leadership in the cities.

By 625 B.C., metal coins are used in Greece for trade, imprinted
with the symbol of wheat. Greek colonists found with Phoenicians, Massilia
(Marseilles) [in present day France] circa 600 B.C. Phoenicia, with Carthage
as a main trading center, had contact with Egypt. Egyptian Pharaoh Necho
had ships circumnavigate Africa circa 600 B.C. Ezekiel, a major Hebrew
prophet of the 6th century B.C. [author of the Book of Ezekiel], has in
Chapter 27, verse 12, a Lament over Tyrus. "Tarshish was thy merchant
by reason of the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, iron, tin and lead,
they traded in thy fairs." Validation is thus made of an interconnecting link
to Jewish merchants and the previously established European-wide network
of bronze exchange, revealing the constant diffusionist nature of expanding
local markets into worldwide trade contacts. Circa 580 B.C., a merchant
vessel capsized off the little island of Giglio in the Tuscan archipelago,
as noted on page 17 of the book Etruscan Art, (1997), by Nigel Spivey.
The ship was probably heading for the Gallic coast, perhaps for Marseilles.
Among its cargo were at least 130 Etruscan trade amphorae
or storage jars and some trade amphorae from East Greece,
(including some from the island of Samos), and Phoenicia.

Mention is made in Irish Tradition that circa 580 B.C., Heremon, King of
Ireland, married Tara [stated as the traditional daughter of Zedekiah, the last
King of Judah (597-586 B.C., he died in captivity at Babylon)]. The bride
Tara is said to have brought the Stone of Destiny with her, which was to
become the coronation stone of Irish and other British Isles Kings. This
traditional account suggests the preservation of the ancient promise given to
King David by Jehovah, through His Prophet Nathan, that He, Jehovah,
would raise up David's seed after him, and would establish Solomon's
Throne forever; noted traditionally in British Isles Royalty origins.  Jacob,
son of Lehi, speaks concerning the righteous branch of Israel in Chapter
10 of section 2nd Nephi of the Book of Mormon. This Jacob mentions,
circa 559 to 545 B.C., that the Lord has made the sea our path, and we
are upon an isle
of the sea [the North and South American Continents;
(also designated totally as the Land of Zion or the pure in heart)]; that great
are the promises of the Lord unto them who are upon the isles of the sea.

Wherefore, Jacob continues to speak: as it says isles [of the sea],
there must needs be more than this, for they are inhabited also
by our brethren
The Babylonian Talmud,  Vol. 8, Seder Nashim,
Chapter I, Gittin, pages 1 and 26-27, mentions:
foreign parts was defined Lit[erally] as the 'province of the sea',
a name given to all countries outside of Palestine and Babylonia.
A review is made of how to reckon Eretz Israel, concerning the case
of a boat in the open sea.  [For determining the status of] the islands
in the
sea, . . . And for the western border, ye shall have the Great Sea
for a border;
this shall be your west border (Numbers 34:6).
[To determine the status
of] the islands on the border line, {4}
(i.e., due west of the coast beyond
the southern and northern extremities
of the border of Palestine), we
imagine a line drawn [due west]
from Kapluria {5} (at the northern
extremity of Mount Hor),
to the
[Atlantic] Ocean, and another from the Brook of Egypt
to the
[Atlantic] Ocean.  All within these lines belong to Eretz Israel
and all outside to foreign parts, the 'province of the

Similarities in Irish history and Jewish history are clearly identified in the
Genesis (Biblical) accounting of Rachel, the daughter of Laban. From
Jewish history, Rachel had stolen the images that were her father's. These
were detested family gods in the House of Jacob, for Rachel had taken the
images, and put them in the camel's furniture, and sat upon them. There is
the parallel theme in the bride Tara bringing the Stone of Destiny as a relic
from Palestine. It is historically accurate to note that many Jewish women
over time have been the transporters of hidden family jewels or precious
objects. This especially happened when persecuted Jews were forced to flee
within a short period of time.  The poem, Ora Maritima, written in the fourth
century A.D. by the Roman Avienus, incorporated information from the sixth
century B.C. sailing manual called the Massiliot Periplus.  Sea journeys were
made by Tartessan and Carthaginian merchant venturers from southern Iberia,
northwards to Brittany, Albion [Britain] and Ireland in order to trade with the
natives.  The Massiliot Periplus mentions islands in the west -- Oestrymnis --
lying close to Britain, whence natives sailed in skin boats carrying cargoes of tin
and lead.  This is discussed in A People of the Sea, The Maritime History of the
Channel Islands, Edited by A. G. Jamieson, first published in 1986.

Ancient Pedigrees, compiled by Alta H. Jacobsen,
(LDS FHC # Folio: 929.2 J157b; SLC, UT.), has the following:
Concerning the history of Mulek: The young son of King Zedekiah was
taken secretly by friends, and removed from the jurisdiction of the Babylonian
Ruler . . . One of the King's daughters was Tamar Tephi . . . They fled into
Egypt about 585 B.C., with the Prophet Jeremiah, their grand-father, and his
scribe, Baruch. From there they went to Spain. One of [the] Princesses married
the ruler of the House of Saragossa. Continuing their journey, they went to the
Isles beyond the sea. They were shipwrecked on the north coast of Ulster
[Ireland]. Eochaid, a Prince of Dan-the Heremon, was crowned King of all
Ireland. He fell in love with Tamar Tephi and married her. So the tradition
goes that the Royal Blood of King David of Israel continues to rule in
Great Britain through the Blood of the Princes…  According to the Book of
Mormon, all the sons of Zedekiah [Mattahiah] were slain except Mulek who
was transported by the hand of God to the North American Continent.

In 559 B.C., metal coinage is created by King Croesus of Lydia.
The Jewish Messenger, New York City, NY, USA, dated Sep. 18, 1874, has
an article concerning the discovery of a stone with a Phoenician inscription
at Parahyba, in northeast Brazil. No historical fact contradicts the
possibility of ten ships with Phoenicians, in 534 B.C., going around Africa,
being blown off track by storms to the coast of Brazil, where this inscription
was carved on the Paraiba Stone, found near the Paraiba River. The
Phoenicians and Carthaginians had ships capable of oceanic travel, and their
presence has been validated by archaeological evidence in the Azores,
Madeira and the Cape Verde Islands. By 520 B.C., a Carthaginian colony
settles at the mouth of the Rio de Oro on Africa's west coast, the southern
zone of Spanish Sahara. The very formation of this thirty thousand, settler
colony in existence for over a half a century, indicates the reasonableness of
other trade settlements as far north of the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea,
on the Atlantic northwest European and British Isles seacoasts.

Mythologies, Vol. 2, mentions the solar star, INTI, a major figure in the Cult
of the Sun Inca pantheon, with the identification of the master of the Empire
with the sun in the sky. The word Ti-ni is just the reverse formation of in-Ti.
In the early King List of the Incas of Peru, the word Tini and Tinia appear in
the early ages of the Kingdom. A Title designation that was also given to the
4th, 14th, 24th, 30th, 42nd 62nd and later Kings, was the word: Cutini, meaning:
"I change back, turn, or reform, reformer of time or of the world".
[See: The records of Fernando Montesinos, published in Memorias Antiguas
Historiales del Peru. It was translated and edited by Philip Ainsworth Means,
M.A., with an introduction by the late Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S.
He also wrote: The Incas of Peru, (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1910),
pages 306-307, the "List of Kings". The said publication of Fernando Montesinos,
published London & printed for the Hakluyt Society by Bedford Press, in 1920.
A sample of some of the listed names of Kings are:
Sinchi Cozque Pachacuti I, 4th King, given the title: Cutini;
Inti Capac Yupanqui, 5th King, reign 50 years;
Tini Capac Yupanqui, 8th King;
Inti Capac Pirua Amaru, 10th King, lived 80 years;
Capac Tinia Yupanqui, 12th King, reign 40 years; lived 90 years.  He was
also called Capesinia, according to the original.  He was very observant of the
rites and grateful to his gods, building many guacas to Illatici and to the Sun;
(to) his father, and to his ancestors (kept genealogical records and family history).
He died when decrepit with age, leaving many sons, and having lived more than
90 years.]

Scientific American, (July 1991), "Copper-Alloy Metallurgy in Ancient Peru";
this article mentions, as early as 500 B.C., copper metallurgy was established
by Cupisnique peoples. Heather N. Lechtman of MIT notes that to the south,
southern artisans emphasized alloys made of copper and tin, by the end
of the first millennium B.C. The Book of Mormon, tells of two major migrations
from the Middle East. The family of Lehi and associates came from Jerusalem
circa 600 B.C., taking a route near the seacoasts, down the area of the Red, or
Arabian Sea.  This was a typical pattern of travel in this time period, as  anciently,
apparently there were spice routes running parallel to both sides of the Red Sea,
by which way
merchants brought their products to Egypt, for use in the art
of embalming their dead
and for burning in ritual and domestic contexts.
[See: Oxford Journal of Archaeology,
Vol. 13, No. 2, July 1994,
Incense, Camels and Collared Rim Jars: Desert Trade
and Maritime Outlets in the Second Millennium, pages 121-148,
with the
proposed incense trade routes shown in Figure 11, page 132.]
Lehi and his group, in particular his son Nephi, built boats and traveled
across the Pacific Ocean, landing in the northern section of the nation
of what is now called Chile, in South America.  The founding of the Jaredite
nation in America, according to the Book of Ether in the Book of Mormon,
came from a migration in the time period of the confusion of tongues
at the Tower of Babel.  [This occurred prior to the death of Noah in 1994 B.C.].
Both the Jaredite and Lehi groups are identified in the Book of Mormon record
as having all kinds of precious metals, a fact validated by current scientific findings.

Historically, Lehi would have belonged to the elite Jewish merchant class
as he had gold and silver and other precious things.  Thus, he would have been
familiar with all of the commercial knowledge needed for the proper transportation
of goods and services.  Lehi, a seer, used a Liahona, or compass, dating back
to the time of Abraham, the historical father of Astronomy.  Abraham had used
the Urim and Thummim to learn about the sun, moon and stars.  The Liahona
[compass], a round ball of curious workmanship [made of fine brass and having
two spindles], also had a Urim and Thummim stone within in, upon which writings
would periodically appear.  Classical writers verify that celestial observations
were used to estimate time and direction as well as determine a form of latitude
on land.  A find from the classical Antikythera  wreck site, dated circa 80 B.C.,
identified an instrument which indicated the movements of the sun, moon
and principal stars.  [See: Cross-Channel Seamanship and Navigation in the Late
First Millennium B.C., by Sean McGrail, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 2,
No. 3, November 1983, page 308.]

Lehi was of the House of Joseph in Egypt, as was Laban.  It was typical
in this time period, for a given "house" or clan to be designated keeper of
a function of society. Laban had in his possession, re: Book of Mormon,
the record of the Jews and the genealogy of the forefathers written upon
brass plates. Priestly scribes would have used this original record source
to make scroll copies for communal distribution. Laban was a mighty man
[high military officer of the Jerusalem region], who commanded fifty soldiers
[servants] on a regular basis.  He could be called upon in time of emergency
to lead tens of thousands in military combat ["Laban and his fifty, yea, or even
than his tens of thousands"].  He was considered among the elite of the leaders
of Jerusalem, with whom he associated on a personal level, eating and drinking
with the Elders of the City.  Laban was destroyed and had his head cut off
for defying a command from God.  He had broken the oath and covenant
of the Priesthood and received the penalty of death from God. Nephi,
of the same House of Joseph, was required by God to uphold inviolate,
the Melchizedek Priesthood authority.

When the untimely demise of this chief military leader and record keeper
was discovered
under suspicious circumstances, [the finding of the family
property of Lehi in Laban's
household possessions, as well as the complete
disappearance of two prominent Jerusalem
families]; an alert would have gone
out to every
possible location, from the highest quarters of Jerusalem, to recover
the Jewish national heritage:
the Brass Plates of Laban.  It contained the five
books of Moses in the
original, giving an account of the creation of the world,
and also of
Adam & Eve.  There were records of the Jews from the creation,
to the commencement of the
reign of Zedekiah, King of Judah. When Lehi
took his family into the wilderness, he could not go due west, as there were
numerous Jewish colonists in the North African region, noted by the definition
of Eretz Israel from The Babylonian Talmud.  [See: Vol. 8, Seder Nashim,
Chapter I, Gittin, pages 1, 26-27.]  Thus, the family of Lehi and associates
came from Jerusalem, taking an escape route near the seacoasts, down
the area of the Red or Arabian Sea.  Anciently, as noted in Roman law,
from Life in the Days of Cicero, page 198, by the Rev. Alfred J. Church,
M.A., published 1968, the form of a sentence of exile was that "Any man
who shall have put to death a Roman citizen uncondemned and without trial
is forbidden fire and water."  This pattern of exile was followed by the family
of Lehi as they made their escape in the wilderness, and did live upon raw
meat, for the Lord had not suffered that they should make much fire.

Tinith, Tinnit, or Tint, i.e. Tanit appears circa the 5th century B.C. at
Carthage. This chief goddess of Carthage, similar to Astarte, was mainly
a mother goddess with fertility symbols included in her reproductions and
some data indicating connection with the heavens. Worship was performed
in the areas of Malta, Spain and Sardinia, many times given the characteristic
of the face of Baal. This dreadful religion included human sacrifice of child
victims. The remains were buried in urns found in the "Sanctuary of Tanit"
at Carthage, as well as at Hadrumetum, Sulcis, Cirta, Calaris, Nora and Motya.

In Italy, Giuliano Bonfante and Larissa Bonfante, show in
The Etruscan Language, as published as an introduction thereto,
by the Manchester University Press in 1983, the following item:
circa 500 B.C., on a red figure Attic kylix from Tarquinia,
('Venal Atelina dedicated this to the sons of Tinia', i.e.
'the Dioskouroi, Castor and Pollux'). N. G. L. Hammond,
CBE, DSO, FBA, mentions in his book: The Macedonian State,
(1989), neighbors to 452 B.C., including the Illyrian tribe,
the Atintanoi, having mines producing silver bullion for coins.
[Coins (issued mainly in the period circa 540 to 510 B.C.)
inscribed with the shortened Ionic dialect name: "of the Tytenoi".]
The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, Vol. II, published 1952,
page 535, mentions under Index of Careers, numerous persons
of the Atinius family circa 212 B.C. to 39 B.C.

The Jewish aristocratic Avtinus family was part of the Temple priesthood in
Jerusalem, Israel.   By 450 B.C., the British Isles were overrun and conquered
by the Celts from the European mainland.  Celtic Ireland is noted in the
Atlas of Irish History, published 1997, under MacMillan USA, Map, page 15.
Ptolemy, an Alexandrian Greek geographer writing after A.D. 100, locates
the Tribe of Auteini [alternative name: Uaithne], at the intersection of 53 degrees
latitude with 9 degrees longitude, in what is now County Clare.  It is significant
to note that as the first Celtic peoples began to arrive in Ireland, "in the second
half of the first millennium B.C.," traces of the Tribes of the House of Israel,
dispersed over the earth at the Capture of Jerusalem in 587 B.C.,
appear both in Kingly traditions and surname similarities
of the Jewish aristocratic Avtinus family.

In ancient Roman Italy, the decemviri, or "ten men" [or, decemviri legibus
scribundis], was a temporary legislative commission from 451 to 449 B. C.
In 451 B.C., the Ten Tables of Laws was created, by this commission.
The Titinia gens, plebeian, is mentioned as early as in the time of the
decemvirs. M. Titinius was one of the tribunes of the plebs, elected
immediately after the abolition of the decemvirate, in 449 B.C. Then follows
Sex. Titinius, tribune of the plebs, 439 B.C. Leontini [from Greek leon, akin
to Hebrew labhi, lion, a representation of the Tribe of Judah anciently + tini],
a group with which Pericles forms an alliance, among others, circa 433 B.C.
Leontini is located on a rich plain of bottom land, an agriculture community
and regional trading center breadbasket. The democracies of Greece
in 421 B.C., include the Mantinea. In 418 B.C., The Battle of Mantinea was
the most important land battle that occurred as part of the Peloponnesian War.
Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum shows that in the Hellenistic and Roman
periods, Jews bore "Hebrew, common Semitic, Greek, Egyptian and Roman
names." In Rome, L. Titinius Pansa Saccus was the consular tribune,
400 and 396 B.C.

About 400 B.C., Athens [Greece] foreign merchants are estimated as perhaps
half of the population of the city of circa 65,000 people. Trade and tin are
discussed by Augustus Boeckh, The Public Economy of the Athenians,
(London, England: Sampson Low, and Son & Co., 1857). The elder
Dionysius, (circa 387 B.C.), who for the accomplishment of his purposes,
[to repay a loan which he had procured from the citizens for the purpose of
building some ships], compelled the creditors to receive coins made of tin.
Current for four drachmas, in actual value they were worth only one
drachma each. Dionysius "The Elder" was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse,
known far and wide for his cruelty.  Nigel Spivey mentions in Etruscan Art,
published 1997, that when Aristotle was composing his Politics, around
the middle of the fourth century B.C., he referred his Greek audience to the
example of the Carthaginians and the Etruscans.  'These peoples', he notes,
'have agreements about imports and exports; treaties to ensure rightful conduct
of trade; and written pacts of alliance for mutual defence.'  They did not interfere
in each other's internal affairs.  The purpose of their bilateral agreements
was to further reciprocal benefit from commerce; non-aggression treaties
were a natural part of that end (Politics 1280 a-b).

A History of All Nations, Volume I, records that Sidon and Tyre established
numerous colonies in Africa, having commercial intercourse even with
Cornwall in England, which furnished the countries bordering on the
Mediterranean with tin. In Volume II, Vahauka or Ochus mounted the
throne as Artaxerxes III and reigned from 358 to 337 B.C. "Ochus himself
took the field; and Tennes of Sidon, though he had made a successful
resistance against the Persian generals, lost his courage at the king's approach,
and treacherously gave up his native city, which the wretched inhabitants set
on fire, perishing themselves in its flames."

London, England was rebuilt by the Celtic King Belin in this time period.
One of the basic (Hebrew) words for tin is: bedil, apparently as (Be{di}lerion),
part of the word: Belerion, the name Diodorus Siculus used in describing the
Land's End peninsula of Cornwall, England.  This name was almost certainly
given to the region by the early Phoenicians. It was additionally called by some
medieval Jewish scholars Ketzei HaAretz, literally rendered as Land's End,
but a Hebrew phrase used to designate England as a whole.

"England's Fabled Mount of St. Michael" is discussed by Alan Villiers
and Bates Littlehales, in National Geographic, (June 1964), Vol. 125,
Number 6, beginning on page 880. "A Greek geographer, one Pytheas,
voyaged north from Massilia-Marseille [in present day France; he sailed
round Spain and up the eastern coast of France (Gaul) to the British Isles]
about 325 B.C. A quote from his lost writings, used some 200 years later
by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, speaks of Iktin." (See also:
The Story of an Ancient Parish Breage with Germoe, Cornwall, by
H. R. Coulthard, M.A.) The general growth of wheat in the southeastern
parts of the British Isles is noted, verifying commercial trade and contact
with the British Isles. A silver tetradrachm of Alexander III of Macedonia,
minted circa 325 B.C., has been discovered east of Holne, near a flat
tin-stream, worked extensively in the past, in England.  A History of Samos,
800 - 188 B.C., by Graham Shipley, published 1987, notes on page 218,
circa the third century B.C., that Tinnis, the daughter/wife of Dionysodoros
(End note 6.18), is the relative of Callicrates, the admiral.  Jews at this time
were migrating from Palestine and settled in Egypt and Asia Minor.
The commencement of the Septuagint version of the Hebrew scriptures
was begun shortly thereafter at Alexandria, Egypt.

The word Iktin and its variations, Ictis, Mictis, Mictim, Mictin, is discussed
fully in C. F. C. Hawkes' paper, Ictis disentangled, and the British Tin trade,
Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 3, No. 2, July 1984, pages 211-234.
Apart from Caesar's De Bello Gallico, nearly all the relevant sources are in
Greek, and one of the few in Latin is from previous Greek. . . . Pytheas and
Timaeus, before and after 300 B.C., Polybius and Posidonius, before and
after 100, Diodorus in the middle first century and Strabo near its end.  Pliny,
after the middle first century A.D., quotes Timaeus.  Each of these three groups
throws light on the trade.  An excellent map of the voyage of Pytheas is drawn
on page 212, with ending location on the Oder (Odra) River at Tanais shown.
Pytheas' voyage had two main purposes, one commercial and the other scientific.
He wished to get readings for the height of the sun and the length of daylight in a
series of latitudes to determine if the earth was round.  "The greatest later
geographers used his solar observations, Eratosthenes adding his own, taken
southwards up the Nile, and Hipparchus forming the base for the world-system
that from Ptolemy on remained classic till the Renaissance."

Carthage in 300 B.C. had become a major center of trade in the
Mediterranean Sea. Part of the commercial contacts of Carthage was
the distribution of tin coming from the British Isles. The La Tene culture of
of Brittany [in present day France on the English Channel], contacted Cornwall
in the 3rd century B.C. through peaceful trade arrangements. Varro states
that P. Titinius Mensa brought the first barbers to Rome in 300 B.C., as noted
in Roman Papers, by Ronald Syme, Vol. V, published 1988, Chapter 35,
Three Ambivii, [273], book page 626, Item # (5) (a), adducing his monument
at Ardea (ii II, 10).  The elder Pliny [Plin. Nat. 7.210 f.] also adds that
Scipio Africanus was the first Roman to shave daily.  Joshua Whatmough,
Late Professor of Comparative Philology in Harvard University, published 1970,
The Dialects of Ancient Gaul, by Harvard University Press at Cambridge,MA.,
USA.  This work was to present differences that existed in the non-Latin dialects
of different parts of ancient Gaul, and showed:
Tinius and Titinia, (on p. 229), are listed as personal names, the latter from
CIL 12.1412, in the district of Narbonensis. "Among the languages that must
have been heard occasionally in the coastal cities of Narbonensis, and at times
even inland, were the Semitic Phoenician and Punic of traders." Additionally:
Tintinni, p. 703, 10010.1901, was found as part of the names of potters
found in Belgica, of which part of the province of Gallia Belgica
was occupied in V to II B.C., by the great La Tene culture.
[Research Note:  As shown previously, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic,
Vol. II, published 1952, page 535, mentions under Index of Careers,
numerous persons of the Atinius family circa 212 B.C. to 39 B.C.  Of these,
C. Atinius was one of the Tribunes of the Soldiers who served in 194 B.C.
under Sempronius in Gaul (Liv. 34.46.12). C. Atinius Labeo, in 195 B.C.,
may have been the author of the Lex Atinia (Gell. 17.7.1) de usucapione.
The Jewish aristocratic Avtinus/Abtinas family was part of the Temple priesthood
in Jerusalem.  'Avitus' is abnormally frequent in the Gallic and Spanish provinces.]
Personal names of Germania Inferior showed:
?Tinnti, Tintinni, p 977, a possible misreading for Ainibinus.
Titinia, p. 1148, (7116), was found in personal names in Germania Superior,
West of the Rhine.  Agri Decvmates with the Upper Rhine and Danube, mentions:
Tina, or "wine-butt", p. 1199
Tinnetio IA, Tinzen, p. 1232
Teni [ ], p. 1307
Tin [ ], and Titennius, p. 1308

E. H. Warmington, M.A., F. R. Hist. S., Remains of Old Latin,
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959), pp. 82-82 and 110-111,
shows on a tablet, found at Tarentum, dated  3rd or 2nd century B.C.,
the item: (a) Aulus Titinius, son of Aulus,
gave a chapel as a vow deservedly to Diana.
[This is similar to the Biblical pattern of St. Luke, 7: 1-10.
Jesus entered into Capernaum. And a certain centurion's servant,
who was dear unto him, was sick, and ready to die. And when he heard
of Jesus, he sent unto him the elders of the Jews, beseeching Him that
He would come and heal his servant. And when they came to Jesus,
they besought Him instantly saying, That he was worthy for whom He
should do this: for he loveth our nation, and he hath built us a synagogue.
(See also, Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews, Chapter 3 and notes,
speaking of another 2nd century B.C. "police-chief" who with the Jews
at Athribis built a synagogue to the Supreme God.)
Then Jesus went with them. And when He was now not far from the house,
the centurion sent friends to Him, saying unto Him, Lord, trouble not
Thyself: for I am not worthy that Thou shouldest enter under my roof.
Wherefore, neither thought I myself worthy to come unto Thee.  But say
in a word, and my servant shall be healed.  For I also am a man set under
authority, having under me soldiers, and I say unto one, Go, and he goeth;
and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and
he doeth it.  When Jesus heard these things, He marveled at him, and turned
Him about, and said unto the people that followed Him, I say unto you,
I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel.  And they that were sent,
returning to the house, found the servant whole that had been sick.]

First evidence of a Greek Jew is found in the records contained in the book:
Selected papers in Greek and Near Eastern history, by David M. Lewis,
formerly Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford, published 1997;
edited by P. J. Rhodes, professor of Ancient History in the University of Durham,
Chapter 37, pages 380-382.  Phrynidas (will release ) Moschos [a slave]
to be free, dependent on no man.  This inscription, dated 300 to 250 B.C.,
was set up by "Moschos, son of Moschion the Jew ", at the command
of the god Amphiaraos and the goddess Health, having seen in a dream
in which Amphiaraos and Health commanded him to write it on stone
and set it up by the altar.  If anything happens to Phrynidas (i.e., if he dies)
before the time elapses, let Moschos [Greek= 'calf'] go free wherever he wishes.
Eratosthenes was the first known Greek writer to make a scientific study
of the dating of events, circa 200 B.C.  Main trade routes north from Marseille,
at the larger towns, had emigrant merchant trading groups from the area
of Asia Minor. The part-Jewish, Tinney [and surname variations] family,
appears to follow known trade associations in the regions.

Titinius, 2nd century B.C., was a writer of comedies at Rome, in Italy,
according to the Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome, by Lesley and
Roy A. Adkins, published 1994, page 232. Titinius was the earliest
known author of fabulae togatae.  Only 15 titles and some fragments survive.
Elizabeth Rawson notes Titinius in Papers of the British School at Rome,
Vol. 53, (New Series, Vol. XI, published 1985), as part of an article related
to Theatrical Life in Republican Rome and Italy, pages 106-108.
T. Mommsen's suggests Titinius was born in the same area indicated
by the locations mentioned in the titles of his plays. Titinius, it is stated,
is a fairly common nomen, and appears in the Roman Fasti in the second
century. . . . There was a prominent family of the name in roughly the right
area.  A number of slaves belonging to various Titinii occur around 100 B.C.
among the magistri at Minturnae, while a freedman of Titinia, is a magister
at Capua.  The Fannia who protected Marius at Minturnae during his flight
ad been divorced by a Titinius [Tinnius]; whose son may be the senator
Q. Titinius who was a neighbour of Cicero's at Formiae
. . .  Titinii
on Delos and at Smyrna may very well come from the same family. {55}
ILLRP 720, 728-31, 733-4; Plut. Marius 38. 4; Cic. ad Att. 7. 18. 4.
See also (Q.) Pontius Titinianus in C. Nicolet, L'Ordre Equestre
(Paris 1974) II no. 289.  Titinii abroad, A. J. N. Wilson,
Emigration from Italy in the Republican Age of Rome (Manchester 1966)
110n., 131; leading eques in Rome in 91, Cic. pro clu. 153.
There is also mention of a possible later Titinius from Privernum, CIL X 6445.

The political interconnection in the plays can be seen in the settings,
as further mention is made concerning the togatae, and that Exceptus
was certainly set in a coastal town with a temple to DianaAulus Titinius,
son of Aulus, noted heretofore, gave a chapel as a vow deservedly to Diana.
The mention of Afranius is significant, as the imago of Scipio Africanus,
born 236 B.C., was kept in the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
on the Capitol. The Jews in the City of Rome anciently had family artifacts
in public places of worship, as discussed later in this document. Rome's first
recorded contact with the Hebrew Nation [Israel] came in 164 B.C., noted in
The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, Vol. I, by Erich S. Gruen,
(1984).  A letter from Roman envoys on their way to Antioch professed
willingness to treat with the Syrian king on behalf of the Jews.  In 161 B.C.,
Judas Maccabaeus sent envoys to Rome and persuaded the Senate
to conclude a treaty of alliance. Significantly, mention is made by Erich S. Gruen
that Josephus records a letter of C. Fannius, C.f. to Cos, asking for safe-conduct
for Jewish emissaries who had recently obtained decrees from the Senate.
A Cn. Fannius is later described as the 'frater germanus' of the senator
Q. Titinius
, a member of a Roman family gens that was part-Jewish.

The Judean Maccabbes family, rulers from 167 to 37 B.C., had contact
& treaties of friendship with the Roman Senate.  Embassies were established
in 142 B.C., re: [I Maccabees], which assisted the significant Jewish settlement
within the city. The treaty with Rome was considered by Pompeius Trogus
as tantamount to an acquisition of liberty for the Jews, as noted in the book:
Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism
, Vol. I, page 342.
In later contact with the Jewish nation, the presiding praetor was Fannius,
[M.f.  C. Fannius, M.f. was consul in 122 B.C.], indicating intimate contact
between the highest circles of Roman Authority and the Maccabees.
The Maccabees original name was the Hasmoneans, a Jewish dynasty
of patriots [followers of the prophets], High Priests and Kings of the second
and first centuries B.C.  Judas Maccabeus had rededicated the Temple
at Jerusalem in 164 B.C., commemorated by the Feast of Chanukah [Hanukkah].
The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 4, Seder Nezikin, Chapter III, Abodah Zarah,
pages 214-215, mentions:
"A man may not make a . . . candelabrum after the design of its [the Temple's]
candelabrum."  The candelabrum in the Temple had seven branches and was
of gold, but at the time of the Hasmoneans, it first consisted of metal staves
or wood overlaid with tin.  When the Hasmoneans grew rich they made one
of silver, and when they grew still richer they made one of gold.

According to information contained in Roman Republican Coinage,
Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, by Michael H. Crawford, Lecturer in Ancient History
at the University of Cambridge, some members of the Titinius family
were monetary magistrates.
[See: Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft,
A.D. 1894 -] M. Titini is identified with the Mint-Rome, in the time period
of 189-180 B.C.  "The moneyer is perhaps a son of M. Titinius,
Pr. urb. 178, or of M. Titinius Curvus, Pr. for Nearer Spain in 178 [B.C.]"
C. Titini
is also affiliated with the Mint-Rome, in 141 B.C., a year after
the Jewish people were allowed to coin money.  With issue of C. Titinius
"a new style appears, with a rounded ornate head of Roma decorated
by a necklace of pendants instead of a necklace of beads."  By the end
of the second century B.C., images on coins were used to magnify the
ruling families and make public mention of prominent ancestry, in Rome.

"The moneyer C. Titinius . . . may belong to an earlier generation of the
same family as one or more of C. Titinius Gadaeus (RE Titinius 21),
a participant in the Second Sicilian Slave Revolt, C. Titinius of Minturnae
(RE Titinius 8), plaintiff in a cause celebre heard by C. Marius,
and C. Titinius (RE Titinius 7), a mutineer during the Social War . . ."
Thomas Wiedemann, Greek and Roman Slavery,
(Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981),
pp. 207-211, under sub-title Diodorus Siculus, 36, notes slave wars:
"The story of Caius Titinius is an example of the lack of co-operation
between slave and free outlaws." Also, province governor Licinius Nerva
persuaded Gaius Titinius, called the Gadaean, immunity under promise
of him helping him. There is also mention of the governor of Heraklea
that he chose one Marcus Titinius as commander and gave him
six hundred soldiers from the garrison at Enna. With conquests
by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, (106-48 B.C.), which included
taking captive Aristobulus and his family, and the later capture
of Jerusalem by Sosius in 37 B.C., came the flood of Jews
to the Roman slave markets.

Jews were involved in Jupiter/Tinia worship, as indicated by the actions of
praetor peregrinus Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispanus, as noted in Greek and
Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism, Vol. 1, pages 357-360. He, in 139 B.C.,
compelled the Jews who attempted to contaminate the morals of the Romans
with the worship of Jupiter Sabazius, to go back to their own homes, or cast
their private altars out of the public places. The Lex Gabinia of 139 B.C.
provided for the secret ballot to be used in the centuriate assembly and reduced
the opportunity for candidates and their supporters to exert direct pressure on the
voters.  It is clear that the secret ballot reduced the power of the Jewish community
in Rome to influence the political leadership of Rome.  This led to the degradation
of free status of the Jews in the City of Rome, with the immediate removal
of family artifacts from public places of worship.  It is validated by inscription
shown in Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture,
by Harriet I. Flower, published 1996.  In Appendix B, page 327,
is inscription I 5 ILLRP  316 = ILS 6 :
Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispanus (pr. 139 B.C., RE 347) . . .
Gnaeus Cornelius, son of Gnaeus, Scipio Hispanus, praetor, curule aedile,
quaestor, twice military tribune, a member of the board of ten who judge
free status, a member of the board of ten who look after the Sybilline books.
I increased the manly virtues of my family by my character, I begot offspring,
I aimed to equal/equalled the achievements of my father. I maintained
in my
own right the renown of my ancestors so that they are happy that
I was their descendant: my official rank ennobled/ made known my family.

Further explained in Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture,
"In marking rank and merit in Rome, the imagines, [a representation of a man's
political seniority within the community], served as a means of communication." 
The example is given of the imago of Scipio Africanus, born 236 B.C.,
that was kept in the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitol.
This imago of Scipio was associated closely with the family funeral
in a way typical for a Roman ancestor mask. For the Jews to have had
their ancestor family artifacts removed from the Temple at Rome, shows
that the Jews had become a significant and powerful minority by this time.
By 142 B.C., the Jewish people were allowed to coin money. The Jews
must have resided in the City of Rome for some considerable time
beforehand to have obtained public recognition in the Temple of
worthy acts of civic or military merit. Only office-holding ancestors
were represented by imagines, since status depended on office.
The variations in text appearing in the writings of Nepotianus and 
Valerius Maximus, with the removal of Jewish references from some
manuscripts, appears to be another example of anti-Semitic activity.
The general Roman attitude concerning the Jewish people is shown
in the writings of Pompeius Trogus, (36.2.8), circa 100 B.C., who
mentions Jews as highly skilled in the art of interpreting dreams, thus
having a reputation for magic and the occult. Apollonius Molon,
Greek rhetorician at Rome during Cicero's time, called the Jewish
Prophet Moses a conjurer and a deceiver.  Moses was considered
"such a person" as the Tyrrhenian [Etruscan] nativity-casters,
as noted in Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism,
Vol. I, page 301, by Strabo of Amaseia, circa 64 B.C. to the A.D. 20's.

George Lyman Kittredge, Witchcraft in Old and New England [USA],
(New York: Russell & Russell, 1929), pages 55, 406, notes that during
ancient Roman times:  "In an important lawsuit in which he and Curio
were counsel on opposite sides, Curio, while addressing the court,
'suddenly forgot the whole case'".  This "portentous lapse of memory
he ascribed to the 'spells and witcheries' of Titinia,
Cicero's [106-43 B.C.] client." (241) Cicero, Brutus, 60. 217:
 "Idque veneficiis et cantionibus Titiniae factum esse dicebat."
[From the senatorial order, Cicero represented Titinia,
the wife of C. Aurelius Cotta (Cos. 75), as noted on page 275
of The Rise of the Roman Jurists, by Bruce W. Frier, published 1985
by Princeton University Press.]
  Curio thus was undermining Cicero
in his defense of Titinia.  Cicero is known by his speeches
to have considered the Jewish religion as a negative force,
a foreign superstition. He felt the Roman religion was superior
to all forms of barbaric customs, spells and witcheries.

Tintinnabulum was a small bell used at times in Roman religious ceremonies,
noted on page 302 of A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins, published 1990;
written by John Melville Jones.  A denarius of C. Minucius Augurinus,
circa 135 B.C., shows the Columna Minucia, [called Aeolic, with volutes branching
outwards at an upward angle instead of horizontally], decorated with tintinnabula
and supporting a statue.  This commemorates an ancestor who was connected
in some way with the distribution of grain to the people of Rome.  Also, in Italy,
Giuliano Bonfante and Larissa Bonfante, The Etruscan Language, (1983),
show circa 100 B.C., an inscription engraved on the life-size bronze statue
called the 'Arringatore', 'the public speaker'. Noted in the Umbrian territory:
'For Aulus Metellius, the son of Vel and Vesi, Tenine set up this statute
as a votive offering, by the deliberation of the people.'

Vol. I & II, by T. Robert S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic,
(New York: American Philological Association, 1951), covers lists of magistrates
and officials from the beginning of the Roman Republic through 31 B.C.
The lists contain the Titinius family under additions and corrections, page 63,
Appendix III, (p. 497), Appendix I, (pp 453-454), etc.; with an Index of careers
of the Magistrates of the Roman Republic on page 626, Vol. II.
[See also:  Vol. III, Supplement, published 1986, page 206]
The combined lists are:
Titinius (4) Leg., Lieut. Or Praef. Class. Under
Octavian 36. [B.C.]
[No title preserved. Commanded the right wing of Octavian's fleet off
Tauromenium (App. BC 5.111).]
C. Titinius (5) Tr. Pl. 192
[One of the Tribunes of the Plebs in 192 B.C.]
C. Titinius (6) Monetal. ca. 135-127, p. 453
[C. Titini(us) (6), Monetalis. In MRR 2.453, and Index, 626,
refer also to Crawford, RRC 1.261, No. 226, 141 B.C.]
[*C. Titinius (cf. 6).  This man of Minturnae, apparently a relative
of Q. Titinius, a juror in the trial of Verres (Cic.Verr. 2.1.128), may
also have been a senator, but can hardly have been the monetalis
(6, above).  See Plut. Mar. 38.3-4; Badian, Historia 12, 1963, 141.]
M. Titinius (10) Tr. Pl. 449
[One of the Tribunes of the Plebs in 449 B.C.]
M. Titinius C. f. C. n. (11) Mag. Eq. 302
[Master of Horse in 302 B.C.  Liv. 10.1.9; Fast. Cap. ([--] C. f. C. [n--]),
Degrassi 38f., 111, 424f.]
M. Titinius (12) Monetal. ca. 150-133, p. 454 (see nos. 13, & 20).
[M. Titini(us) (12), Monetalis.  In MRR 2.454, and Index, 626,
refer also to Crawford, RRC 1.220-221, no. 150, 190-189 B.C.]
M. Titinius (13, cf. 20) Pr. Urb. 178.
[One of the Praetors in 178 B.C.  Liv. 41.6.4. Ordered to raise an army
and go to Ariminum after the news of the defeat in Istria (Liv. 41.5.7)]
M. Titinius (14) An officer (Leg., Lieut. Or
Prefect) under Licinius Nerva In Sicily 104. [B.C.]
[Diod. 36.4.3).]
[Officer under Licinius Nerva in Sicily, 104. A. Roes and
W. Vollgraf identify the cantharos of Stevensweert as booty from
this Sicilian war, and refer the inscription on it (M. Titini) to this
officer (Mon. et Mem. Fondation Piot 46, 1952, 61-67 -- AEpig.
1953, no. 156).]
P. Titinius (16) Leg., Lieunt. 200
[One of the Legates, Lieutenants in 200 B.C.]
Q. Titinius (17) Senator 70, p. 497
[(C.f.) (17), Senator in 70.  A member of the jury in the trial of
Verres (Cic. Verr. 2.1.128). See C. Titinius (cf. 6), above.  See
Wiseman, NM 266, no. 433.]
Sex. Titinius (18) Tr. Pl. 439
[One of the Tribunes of the Plebs in 439 B.C.]
M. Titinius Curvus (20, cf. 12, 13) Tr. Pl. 192, Pr. Nearer
Spain 178, and Procos. 177-175.
[One of the Tribunes of the Plebs in 192 B.C.  Vetoed the triumph
demanded by Cornelius Merula. (Liv. 35.8.9)]
[One of the Praetors in 178 B.C. in Hither Spain.]
[One of the Promagistrates in 177 B.C.; continued to command in
Hither Spain (Liv. 41.9.3)]
[One of the Promagistrates in 176 B.C.; His imperium as Proconsul
in Hither Spain was prorogued (Liv. 41.15.11).]
[One of the Promagistrates in 175 B.C.; Proconsul in Hither Spain, whence
he returned to celebrate a triumph (Act. Tr. Cap. and Urbisalv., Degrassi
80 f., 338f., 555; cf. Liv. 41.26.1).]
L. Titinius L. f. M'. n. Pansa Saccus  (25) Tr. Mil. C. p. 400, 396
[One of the Military Tribunes with Consular Power in 400 B.C.]
[One of the Military Tribunes with Consular Power in 396 B.C.
Titinius and Genucius were in command at Falerii and Capena, where
Genucius was killed (Liv. 5.18.7-12).]

Andrew Wallace-Hadrill notes in Vol. I of Patronage in Ancient Society,
(1989), p. 54, that special attention should be paid to the dedication to the
senior equestrian governor of Numidia, L. Titinius Clodianus, a rarissimus
patronus, erected by C. Vibius Maximus, eques Romanus, fisci advocatus
and candidatus eius (AE 1917-18, 85). Note: Numidia was the ancient name
for Algeria in North Africa, which formed into two kingdoms circa 146 B.C.,
when Rome destroyed Carthage. Masinissa united the two kingdoms with
the aid of Rome and his grandson Jugurtha was put to death in 104 B.C.,
at which time all Numidia (Algeria) became a Roman possession.

Strabo relates that even in Sulla's time, circa 100 B.C., that a Jewish element
had penetrated into every city and "there is hardly a place in the world which
has not admitted this people and is not possessed by it." [STRABO, Fragment 6,
cited by Josephus, Ant. Jud., XIV, 7,2.]  Strabo also mentions in Book III,
"Prettanike" for Britain.  Modern Etymological authorities believe in the possible
original pre-Roman Celtic name Pretani.  The inhabitants of Brettanike who
dwell throughout the promontory called Belerion are more than usually friendly
[differential] to strangers, as noted on page 219, in C. F. C. Hawkes' paper,
disentangled, and the British Tin trade, Oxford Journal of Archaeology,
Vol. 3, No. 2, July 1984, pages 211-234.  Thus, it is historically obvious that
displaced Jews would have been welcomed here and would find survival in
the preparation and distribution of tin. Jewish traders would buy the tin and
transport it for sale at Marseilles and elsewhere.  Since early-medieval Irish
texts refer to the Channel as 'the sea of Icht', it is obvious that Jewish interests
were carried throughout the British Isles through merchant contacts, as well as
on the European continent.  [See also: Ictis: was it here?, by Barry Cunliffe,
Oxford Journal of Archaeology
, Vol. 2, No. 1, March 1983, pages 123-on.]

Southern England: An Archaeological Guide, (1973), by James Dyer,
discusses the prehistoric and Roman remains of Cornwall [England]. In
the Iron age and Romano-British time period, Chysauster Village, a site
in south-west Cornwall only 6 km from St. Michael's Mount, was occupied
from about 100 B.C. until well into the 3rd century A.D., although there is
little evidence that the Romans had much influence on affairs there.  Houses
and outbuildings were constructed as a single unit around a central courtyard.
One house, on the south side of the village has a small ruined example of
a fogou, or underground chamber attached to it. [This is similar in construction
to later Jews' houses of the Medieval Period in England, which had the hall
on the upper floor that was open to the roof.  It was the main room (greater
chamber) of the house.  Below was a lower room (lesser chamber, undercroft,
or crypt).] In Chysauster Village, an entrance passage leads into the courtyard,
which was open to the sky.  A track leads downhill from the settlement
to a stream beside which tin working was carried out.

Some of the Chysauster Village huts had open hearths and granite basins
for grinding meal near their centres. On one side of the courtyard are long,
narrow workrooms and sometimes, additional living rooms with corbelled
stone roofs.  [The later Medieval Period Jews' houses often had a stone
vaulted ceiling with domestic and service wings kept separate.]  At Chysauster
Village, there were such things as covered drains with sumps, a semi-detached
house, and each house has its own terraced garden plot with a low stone wall
and small terraced fields up the hill-slope.  The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 2,
Seder Nezikin, Chapter V, Baba Bathra, page 368, mentions: "Our Rabbis
taught: Weights must not be made either of tin or of lead" or of gasitron {3}
or of any other kinds of metal, {4} (because the friction caused by constant
use reduces their weight), but they must be made of stone or of glass.

Mention is made in A Thesaurus of British Archaeology, (1982),
by Lesley and Roy A. Adkins, that houses, in the Medieval Period
in England, had the hall as the basis, both in town and country.
This hall type of house was built in stone from the late twelfth century
and such houses are often known as Jews' houses because many
of the wealthy people that owned such houses were Jews.  Thus, an
architectural connection appears over time, from the Jews' houses
constructed during the Medieval Period in England, back to the houses
constructed at Chysauster Village for the families of tin workers, circa
100 B.C. to A.D. 300. A traditional prototype of what appears to be an early
Jewish tin working settlement, is handed down in Cornwall, England
tradition in Jew's house tin furnace sites, and the owners of nearby living
quarters. Mining sites would be called Jew Houses and Jew's house tin,
in a connecting interrelationship to nearby resident Jewish homes,
where the owners of the tin pits lived.

This is similar to the pattern shown in Irish Names of Places, listed
in The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places, Vol. III, published
in 1913, by P. W. Joyce, LL. D., one of the Commissioners for the
Publication of the Ancient Laws of Ireland, pages 572-574, namely:
Tennalick in Longford; Tigh-na-lice, house of the flagstone;
Tentore in Kilkenny; Tigh-an-tuair, house of the bleach-green, or grazing place;
Tinacarra in Roscommon; Tigh-na-caraidh, house of the weir or dam;
Tinacrannagh in King's Co.; Tigh-na-cranncha, house of the trees;
Tinahask in Wicklow; Tigh-na-heasca, house of the quagmire [stream] (eisc);
Tinahely in Wicklow; Tigh-na-hEilighe, house of the Ely [a little river name];
Tincarraun in Kilkenny; Tigh-an-charrain, house of the rocky land;
Tincashel in Kilkenny; Tigh-an-chaisil, house of the cashel or stone fort;
Tincurra in Wexford; house of the curragh or moor;
Tingarran in Kilkenny; Tigh-an-gharrain, house of the garran or copse;
Tinnaberna in Wexford; . . . house of the gap;
Tinnabinna in Waterford; house of the binn or pinnacle;
Tinnaclash in Carlow; . . . house of the trench;
Tinnaclohy in Queen's Co.; house of the stone (cloch);
Tinnahask in Wexford; same as Tinahask;
Tinnaragh in Queen's Co., and Tinnarath in Wexford, . . . house of the rath or fort;
Tinnaranny in Kilkenny; . . . house of the point (rinn, reanna);
Tinnascolly in Kilkenny; . . . house of the school: "schoolhouse";
Tinnashrule in Wexford; . . . house of the shrule or stream;
Tinnaslatty in Kilkenny; . . . house of the slat or rod;
Tinnasragh in Queen's Co.; . . . house of the srath or river-holm;
Tinnynar in Longford; . . . house of the slaughters;
Tinoran in Wicklow; . . . house of the uarain or well;
Tinriland in Carlow; . . . house of the Raoire, ancient name of a Royal residence;
Tintine in Kilkenny; . . . house of the [Tinteem] bush (tom, tuim);
Tintur in Waterford, . . . house of the bush (tur).

E. H. Warmington, M.A., F. R. Hist. S., Remains of Old Latin,
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959), pp. 82-82 and 110-111,
(II) Dedications on oblong rectangular slabs that serve as altars,
by 'magistrae' of Minturnae. Early part of the 1st century B.C.
     (ii) These foremen present this as a gift to Hope:
     Antiochus, slave of Quintus Pullius; Bacchides, slave of
     Marcus Paccius; Seleucus, slave of Marcus Aurelius
     and Gaius Aurelius;
     ( . . . and others, including:) Deiphilus, slave of Publius Curtilius
and Gaius Titinius{8} (and two others).
{8} who is mentioned also in Johnson number 22 (cp. Also a freedman of this
in nr. 18.); the democrat Marius granted him a divorce from his wife
, who later nevertheless gave Marius refuge when he fled from Sulla
in 88 B.C.

Sir Ronald Syme, Roman Papers (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979),
Vol. II, p. 594, mentions:
"Fanni. Some of the senatorial Fannii might come from Minturnae. There is
a double link with Titinii there domiciled. First, the wealthy and debauched
Fannia, married to C. Titinius: Marius in the year 100 B.C. preserved her
dowry from the dishonest husband, and she was duly grateful to the fugitive
statesman in 88 B.C., giving him harbourage (Plutarch, Marius 38;
Valerius Maximus viii 2, 3). Second, the knight Cn. Fannius is described as
the 'frater germanus' of the senator Q. Titinius (In Verrem I 128). Munzer
suggests that he may have been an illegitimate son of the notorious Fannia
(RE vi, col. 1992). In view of the prevalence of marriage or divorce in related
groups (signally attested by the Pro Cluentio), the suggestion might be waived."
Cynthia J. Bannon, in The Brothers of Romulus: Fraternal Pietas in Roman
Law, Literature, and Society, published 1997 by Princeton University Press,
notes on page 69-70, the implications of biological kinship between brothers
can be explored through a brief examination of the usage of the adjective
germanus. . . . "Even after a man's natural brother was adopted into another
family, Romans continued to emphasize the biological link between brothers.,
as when Cicero identified Cn. Fannius as frater germanus of Q. Titinius."
Note 32 states: (Cic. Ver. 2.1.128.) The relationship between Fannius and
Titinius was obscured by the change of name resulting from adoption or
because they were sons of the same mother but different fathers.
[See F. Munzer, PWRE s.v. "Titinius" 17.]

Some characteristics of the Titinius or Tinnius family are also found in
Plutarch's Lives [circa A.D. 46-120]. Marius, head of his company, is
noted as being about twenty furlongs distant from Minturnae, a city in Italy;
then proceeding to land at the mouth of the River Liris, where Marius was
captured and held by the magistrates of Minturnae. Marius was sent as a
prisoner to the house of one Fannia. One Tinnius had formerly married this
Fannia; from whom she afterwards, being divorced, demanded her portion,
which was considerable, but her husband [Tinnius] accused her of adultery;
so the controversy was brought before Marius in his sixth consulship. When
the case was examined thoroughly, it appeared both that Fannia had been
incontinent, and that her husband [Tinnius], knowing her to be so, had
married and lived a considerable time with her. So that Marius was severe
enough with both, commanding Tinnius to restore her portion,
and laying a fine of four copper coins upon her by way of disgrace.

Titinii are also mentioned down until the time of 81 B.C., and later, when
in that year, they were among people of property proscribed by Sulla and
murdered by Catiline. The Correspondence of M. Tullius Cicero, (1918),
Vol. 3, pp. 404-405, from Plutarch's Lives, discusses the actions of a
, who crowned with garlands, made what haste he could towards
. With the unfortunate error and death of his general, he drew his
sword, and having very much accused and upbraided his own long stay,
that had caused it, he [Titinius] slew himself.

Charles T. Barlow, in 1978, completed his University of North Carolina
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of History.
It was entitled: Bankers, Moneylenders, and Interest Rates in the Roman
Republic, and mentioned on page 201 that Q. Titinius and L. Ligus also
lent money at interest, but had trouble collecting their loans in 49 B.C.
Reference given as Cicero, Ad Att. 7.18.4  In Dr. Barlow's Appendix I:
A Catalog of Bankers, Moneylenders, and Nummularii, listing from prior
to 80 B.C. to 31 B.C., is #123, Q. Titinius of Rome, a family noted in part
to be Jewish. The family gens is mentioned on coins by the representation
of one C. Titinius. On the obverse is the head of Pallas, and on the reverse
Victory in a biga with C. Titini, and underneath, Roma.  In Pro Flacco, is
recorded Cicero's speech at Rome in 59 B.C., in the defense of governor
Flaccus, who took more than 100 pounds of gold designated by the Jews
for the Temple at Jerusalem, in 62 B.C.  He suggests in a degrading manner
that the people before whom he is presenting his arguments, are infiltrated
with numerous Jews who have come to support the interests of their suffering
Jewish brothers.  The Titinius family was financially well established in Rome
and would have had intimate contact with similar Jewish money lenders,
gold transfers from Rome to Jerusalem and Roman taxation of the Jews.

Circa 60 to 50 B.C., Julius Caesar invaded Gaul and later in 55 and 54 B.C.
the Romans invaded the Tin Isles, the Romans calling it Britannia. In Vol. 21,
Transactions of the Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire
, it is
suggested that tin was infinitely more valuable to the ancients than it is to
the moderns; without this metal it is not easy to conceive how they could
have carried on the useful arts. Alloys of copper by tin would afford better
substitutes for steel and iron. *Britannia, if for Brit, speckled, parti-coloured,
and Tania, region or country, it is suggested that the correct derivation is
Brith, bringing forth; stain or stan, tin; and ia, country or island; the
combination Britannia, signifying the tin-producing country or island.
[Note: Phoenician: Berat-Anach, "the country of tin".]

The Titinius family is mentioned in the Vol. 7, index by
Robert Yelverton Tyrell, (Litt. D.), and Louis Claude Purser,
(Litt. D.), The Correspondence of M. Tullius Cicero,
(Dublin, Ireland: Hodges, Figgis & Co., Ltd., 1918),
as follows:
Titinius, his son with Caesar, letter 360.6; 364.1; 376.2; 377.2
Titinius (M.), Cicero's letter to, Frag. i.
Titinius (Q.), money-lender, 31.1; 250.5; 316.4.
Quoting from Vol. 4 of this seven volume work, p. 138,
" . . . 'to give you an idea as to the sort of people I am following, let me tell
you that Furnius (357) reports that the son of Titinius is with Caesar
(364.1), but that Caesar expresses obligations to me more than I care for.'
Cicero gives the pros and cons of the question; pro is Caesar's courtesy;
contra that he should have with him such creatures as the son of Titinius.
Thus can sed be explained, of which (etc.) . . . The 'son of Titinius' appears
to have been a Titinius who was adopted by a Pontius, as he is called
Pontius Titinianus in 377.2."

The Etruscans concern with the Tomb has duplication in Jewish History.
J. H. Hottinger, (Cippi Hebraici, Heidelberg, 1662), mentions that the
visitation of sepulchers was an ancient custom among the Jews. This is
verified in the Lives of the Emperors, by Suetonius, born shortly after the
death of Nero, A.D. 68, who mentions that especially the Jews, gave forth
their lamentations around the grave of Julius Caesar, and visited his tomb
night after night. Gaius Julius Caesar [100 to 44 B.C.] was the Roman
statesman, general and historian; dictator 49 to 44 B.C., known to have a
positive attitude towards the Jewish people; assassinated. Caesar, a
cognomen within the Julian gens, is of Etruscan origin.  His genealogy is
mentioned by Theodore Ayrault Dodge, in his book: Caesar, A History of
the Art of War among the Romans down to the end of the Roman Empire, with
a detailed account of the campaigns of Caius Julius Caesar, published 1997,
pages 37-38.  Caesar spoke at the funeral of his aunt Julia, who had married
MariusCaius Marius was the first to give every free-born citizen, however poor,
an equal right to serve in the new organization of the Roman army.

Fasti Romani, Vol. II, MDCCCL, by Henry Fynes Clinton, Esq. M.A., pages 7-10,
notes that Caesar admitted to the class of citizens the whole of Gallia transpadana.
"The highest class among the natives of transalpine Gaul were made citizens
of Rome."
  This would have included Jewish residents.  "That some Jews
were made citizens we know from Josephus{l} and Philo{m}.  The father
of St. Paul was a Roman{n}."  Additionally, "Eighty thousand citizens were planted
by Caesar in colonies beyond the seas."  Later, The Works of Josephus,
New Updated Edition, published 1987, in
The Wars of the Jews, Book 2,
Chapter 14: 09, page 617, mentions that Gessius Florus,
Roman procurator
of Judea, beginning circa A.D. 66 showed Roman barbarity,
including having men
"of the equestrian order whipped,{d} and nailed to the cross
before his tribunal;
who, although they were by birth Jews, yet were they of Roman dignity
notwithstanding."  By Roman law, this should have never happened.  The men
of the equestrian order were highly respected from a military standpoint,
as Plutarch
notes of Caesar, that from his first youth he was much used
to horseback, and had even
acquired the facility of riding with dropped reins
and his hands joined behind his back.

The Jews have two kinds of mourning in connection with death. The one was
domestic, at the house, when the deceased was a relation or friend. The other
religious, at the burial places of prophets or teachers of the law [doctors],
when prayers were offered with the face towards the Holy City, commending
the dead man to God, and wishing him a happy resurrection. In relation to the
latter, mention is made, in the Notae Miscellaneae of Porta Mosis, by Dr. Pocock,
that Jews who were oppressed with any difficulty prostrated themselves before
God at the sepulchers of the pious. This was because of the impression that had
been left in the bones of the righteous dead by the Divine Spirit. Thereby they
wished to be assisted in their efforts at Divine communication.

John Lingard, D.D., mentions in The History of England, the key element
that tin was brought up by factors on the coast of the Mediterranean,
and conveyed over land to the remote provinces of India.
A Cornish Parish: Being an Account of St. Austell,
Town, Church, District and People
, published 1897,
by Joseph Hammond, LL.B., Vicar, page 43, mentions that:
"In one [of the stream works on St. Austell moor] were lately found,
about 8 ft. under the surface, two slabs or small blocks of melted tin
of about 28 lb. weight each, of a shape very different from that which
for many years has obtained in Cornwall.  They have semicircular handles
or loops to them, as if to sling and carry them more conveniently on horseback."
 . . . it had a long land journey, on packhorses, before it was put into the boat
for Gaul, and it had a still longer horseback journey afterwards,
as noted in the account of Diodorus Siculus.  This fact appears
to be handed down in the very definition of the word Tyn in Cornish,
i.e. a Passage over a River or Arm of the Sea; also a Hill,
as noted in A Cornish-English Vocabulary, the last section in the book:
Antiquities, Historical and Monumental, of the County of Cornwall,
published in London, 1769, by William Borlase, LL.D., F.R.S.,
Rector of Ludgvan, Cornwall.

Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism, Vol. I, pages 45-52,
records tradition dating back to the writings of Megasthenes and Clearchus
of Soli, circa 300 B.C.  They connect the Jewish people with the country of India,
both in opinions that are expressed by the ancients and descent from the Indian
philosophers.  Connection by Jewish tin merchants is confirmed from England
to the country of India, as shown in these cultural similarities. The Cornish word
Tin is defined as sharp, terrible, severe.  CERNVNNOS was a deity
of the Gauls, a name derived from the word "horn"; used also to include
the sharp projections shooting out on each side into the sea from ancient
Kernou (Cornou/Cornouak or Cornow/Curnow); i.e., Cornubia or Cornuwallia,
for the native designation for Cornwall; as in Hebrew Karnee/-t, adj., hornlike.
[Cornvalgie, - - Cornwall, from page 30, Vol. 2, The History of Cornwall,
Chron. Saxon.]  The Magen David [Jewish shield of King David of Israel],
is noted among the Celts as a pentacle of the druids and among the Etruscans
it was considered as a symbol of the deity of Fortune. The Jewish Encyclopedia
notes Indian Hindus, likewise employed the hexagram as a means of protection.

The Druids of the Gallic Provinces and the region of Britannia are evaluated
by Pliny, in his work: The Natural History [Historia Naturalis].  Pliny,
[A.D. 23-79] indicates this void in the recesses of Nature [British Isles],
cultivate magic art, with ceremonials so august, that she might almost seem
to have been the first to communicate them to the people of Persia.
Pliny also mentions Romans derived their colours from India, with later
references indicating wealthier Jews in Rome had veils hanging in their homes
with India decorated on them. The Hindu World, Vol. 2, pages 180-181,
notes:  Pandya - the name of an ancient non-Aryan, Tamil Kingdom
at the extreme southern tip of the Indian peninsula, covering the regions
of Madura, Ramnad, Ramesvaram, Taticorin and Tinnevelly . . .
Strabo mentions an embassy sent to Augustus Caesar about 29 B.C.
by a King named Pandion, who was probably a Pandya ruler . . .

A History of Surrey, [England], by Henry Elliot Malden, M.A.,
published in 1900, p. 19, mentions:
"When Caesar was about to invade Britain, he used the services of one
Commius, a chief of the Belgic Atrebates of Gaul, who was supposed to
have influence among the Belgae in Britain, and sent him over before his
expedition, to prepare alliances." As noted before, Tintinni was found as
part of the names of potters found in Belgica, of which part of the province
of Gallia Belgica was occupied in V to II B.C., by the great LaTene culture.
King Commius of the Belgic elements in England, died about 25-20 B.C.
and was succeeded by his son Tinc, or Tincommius. From An Atlas of
Roman Britain, by Barri Jones and David Mattingly, 1990, is information
concerning coins of the Atrebatic princes Tincommius and Verica:
"Their father Commius had been a Gallic refugee from Caesar and was
the first British ruler to put his name on his coins. Tincommius succeeded
to his rule over the Atrebates south of the Thames, but pressure from the
Catuvellauni seems to have led to the loss of the northern part of his lands
centered on Silchester. He was eventually replaced by his brother Verica."
Emperor Augustus, on the "Ancyra Marble", claims help to two British exiles,
Dubnovellaunus, and Tim---, or Tin--- (the name is broken across through
its third letter), according to England Before the Norman Conquest.

Coming down in time, the Welsh and English Dictionary notes that:
Tinc, s.m., is a fictitious word signifying a tinkle or blow on a bell,
pot or anything of metal;
Tincio, v.a., to tink, to tinkle, to ring.
This is similar to one of the Latin meanings for the word: Tinnio.
[Research Note: Tinc, s.m., is not a fictitious word, as stated above.
Archaeologia Cantiana, [England], Being Contributions to the History
and Archaeology of Kent, Vol. CIV [104], (1987/1988),
lists under Item # 13, Researches and Discoveries in Kent, page 353,
Two coins were found at Brishing (N.G.R. TQ 7751) by K. R. Parker,
in 1987.  This is the area where a Roman bath building was found in 1841,
the site or its vicinity yielding six Celtic coins of Dubnovellaunus (2),
Eppillus, Cunobelin (2) and Amminius.
. . .
2.  A/ stater of Tincommius; diam. 17 mm. cf. Mack 100.
Obv.: (convex) COM.F on sunk tablet.
Rev.: (concave) horseman right with javelin; below TIN
While coins of Tincommius have been found in the territories
of the Atrebati and Regni and in large numbers in that of the latter (Sussex),
Allen recorded only one unprovenanced coin from Kent
and in Haselgrove's additional list none are shown for Kent.]


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