MEDICAL and HEALTH: Genetics - Genealogy - Medical History
Genetics and genealogy databases, in combinations with all essential medical, medicine
and health care services for families, educators, students and health care providers.
Family Genealogy & History Internet Education Directory™ - Wiki    |    SEARCH This Site
  Definition of Medical Words

  Genetics - General

  Genealogy Medical Pedigree

  History of Medicine

  Genetics & Genealogy

  Researching A Medical Ancestor


"Waiting, waiting, time on my hands..."
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) | CDC [Google™] WHO Dashboard

Death Clock When will you die?
- Life Expectancy CalculatorWHO Life Expectancy
When am I going to die?  Like the hourglass of the Net, the Death Clock will remind
you about how short life is.  What are the facts?  Will you actually be living to 100+?
Aging: Longwave UV light induces the aging-associated progerin Evidence Progerin
Alphabet Inc.> Calico LLC company focused on longevity research and therapeutics
Cemeteries, Funeral Homes and Obituaries - Ancestor Roots Information OneSource

[Cyberspace:   Digital Beyond: Your Digital Afterlife - if i - MyWonderfulLife®]
Dead and Death:
"Deaths in 2024" -- Lists of Deaths by Year
National Institute on Aging | The Leader in Aging Research
The Aging Brain: Week by Week Time Lapse -- YouTube™
World Life Expectancy - Live Longer Live Better: Sitemap


DEFINITION of MEDICAL WORDS: mondofacto | dictionary
Dictionary of terms from medicine, science and technology.
Contagion - Historical Views of Diseases and Epidemics | Related Links
* Antiquus Morbus (archived)
Genealogist's resource for interpreting causes of death.
List A - List B - List C - List D - List E - List F - List G - List H - List I - List J
List K - List L - List M - List N - List O - List P - List Q - List R - List S - List T
List U - List V - List W - List X - List Y - List Z
Curlie - Reference: Dictionaries: By Subject: Medicine
* Dorland's Medical Reference Works: Medical Dictionary
Medical Dictionary - Comprehensive Medical Terminology Search
* Medical Dictionary Online
Medical Terminology
* Medical Word Search
* - Alpha Index
  A listing - Medical Dictionary.

Old Disease Names & Their Modern Definitions
Shirley Hornbeck's This & That Genealogy Tips
  Diseases, medical terms and epidemics.

Stedmans | LWW: Stedman's Online
  Medical Dictionaries; medicine's most authoritative word reference site.
  Biographical dictionary of medical eponyms, or names of drugs, structures,
  or diseases based on or derived from  the name of a particular person.
Word of Wisdom
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Am Medical Association - Genetics & Molecular Medicine: Family Medical History
Beta-Thalassemia Project - Genealogy with a Special Reason - Family Ties
* CDC Features - Family Health History: Collect it
Family Health History Toolkit
  Make family health history a tradition
Genealogical Databases as a Tool
  For extending follow-up in clinical reviews. - PubMed - NCBI

Genealogy As A Tool For Self-Knowledge & Family Therapy (archived)
  Beginning to learn about one's heritage, even by speaking with available
  older relatives about their pasts, can help facilitate self-awareness as
  a member of a group and provide a bridge to a forgotten cultural base,
  empowering individuals and family systems to confirm or reweave their
  values, identify patterns, and make changes in personal, family and cultural
  activities; all of which in turn may give hope for curing present social ills.

* Genogram and Medical Record
  - Adding the Gene to Geneograms
Family Communication - Genograms
  - GenoPr
for the Genogram
    Intuitively easy to learn, simple to use, yet capable
    of handling the most complex genealogy tree.
  - How to Draw Genograms |
How to Make a Genogram: 7 Steps - wikiHow
SmartDraw®.com Web Site Map - Genealogy
    Communicate Visually®. Genealogy software for genograms, etc.
* Getting Medical Records & Information
  - United Kingdom Hospital Records Database
* Global Alliance for Genomics and Health: Members
  - Beacon Network:
    Global search engine for discovery of genetic mutations,
    federated across a large and growing network of shared genetic datasets.
  - Catalogue of Global Activities - eHealth
    Identify and aggregate global resources
    for sharing clinical and genomic eHealth data.
  - Catalogue of Global Activities - Family History Tools
    Family history tools currently available for documenting
    family health history information; updated periodically.
  - Catalogue of Global Activities - International Genomic Data Initiatives
    Information on world-wide genomic data initiatives,
    including national precision medicine initiatives,
    data-sharing initiatives, databases and repositories,
    international genomics research consortia and projects,
    and other genomics data resources.
  - Catalogue of Global Activities - Mendelian
    Current activities for sharing data on Mendelian Genetic Disorders.

Hereditary Diseases
  Family history and genealogy message board at
* International Birth Defects Information Systems
* Keeping a Personal Health Record
* March of Dimes: Pregnancy & Health Profile
  Free software that helps primary prenatal providers identify and then
  discuss with their patients certain genetic risks based on family health history.

My Family Health Portrait
  HHS - U.S. Surgeon General's family history initiative.
* RootsWeb: Genealogy Mailing Lists
  Medical - Pedigree.
  Family Tree for health history.

* World Medical Card®
  Ensures that individuals can carry essential medical information
  with them at all times and everywhere in the world.

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GENETICS & GENEALOGY: Genetic Genealogy:
Genealogical DNA test - List of Genetic Genealogy Topics
My problem with injecting DNA into genealogy research comes
from changing scientific "truths" over time.  The Synaptic Scoop,
18 Jun 2013, discusses "neurogenesis". Significantly, [The more 14C
that is in the atmosphere, the more it is integrated into our own body’s
DNA when new cells are created.]  Researchers found that [Atmospheric
detonation of atomic bombs from 1955-1963 shot worldwide 14C levels
through the roof.]  This can be compared with solar activity.
carbon dating – The Synaptic Scoop (archived)

[From constant stream of particles in the form of solar wind
to the unpredictable bombardment from solar flares and coronal
mass ejections, Earth often feels the effects of its stellar companions.]
Space Weather: Sunspots, Solar Flares & Coronal Mass Ejections
[When the twisted field lines cross and reconnect, energy explodes
outward with a force exceeding that of millions of hydrogen bombs.]
Anatomy of Sun Storms & Solar Flares (Infographic)

From a historical standpoint, on Sept. 1, 1859, the Carrington Event
was [the largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded.]  [Just before dawn
the next day, skies all over planet Earth erupted in red, green, and purple
auroras so brilliant that newspapers could be read as easily as in daylight.
Indeed, stunning auroras pulsated even at near tropical latitudes over Cuba,
the Bahamas, Jamaica, El Salvador, and Hawaii.]
A Super Solar Flare - NASA Science

Additionally, scientists do not understand the how and why of a tropic environment
for the North Pole region. [Researchers are not sure what caused the sudden boost
of carbon dioxide that set the greenhouse effect on broil. Possible culprits could be
huge releases of methane from the ocean, gigantic continent-sized burning of trees,
or lots of volcanic eruptions.]
Study: North Pole Once Was Tropical - CBS News

[Analysis of two ancient trees found a surge in carbon-14 -- a carbon isotope
that derives from cosmic radiation -- which occurred just in AD 774 and AD 775,
the team report in the journal Nature on Sunday.] . . .
In Tree Rings, Japanese Scientists Find 8th-Century Mystery

Nevertheless, the fact remains (that due to the changes in solar radiation and intensity
on different earth areas over time); using DNA as a biological constant over time that
can be used to identify human ancestry, is technically and scientifically incorrect;
forever outside the scope of being a primary source tool for competent genealogical
or family history research, especially prior to written records.
Solar Flare Unleashes Violent Plasma 'Rainstorm' (Video)

Major X-Class Solar Flares Unleashed by Sun (Photos) |
[The story begins, in a sense, in classrooms around the world, where students
are taught that the rate of decay of a specific radioactive material is a constant.
This concept is relied upon, for example, when anthropologists use carbon-14
to date ancient artifacts . . .Their findings strengthened the argument that
the strange swings in decay rates were caused by neutrinos from the sun.
The swings seemed to be in synch with the Earth's elliptical orbit,
with the decay rates oscillating as the Earth came closer to the sun
(where it would be exposed to more neutrinos) and then moving away.]
The Strange Case of Solar Flares and Radioactive Elements (archived)

[IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions
of a nearly massless sub-atomic particle called the neutrino. . . . IceCube studies
the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator
From: IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Scientific American Magazine
January 13, 2014 issue: Superpowerful X-ray Laser Boils Atoms in Molecules,
Nanosystems and Solids and Explodes Proteins, All in the Name of Science.
[. . . the laser boils away the atoms' electrons from the inside out. . . .
the inner shell takes the brunt of the radiation . . . The two electrons in that shell
shoot off, leaving empty space in their wake; the atom is hollow. Within a few
femtoseconds (quadrillionths of a second), other electrons get sucked in to replace
the lost ones, and the cycle of core-hole formation and vacancy filling continues
until no electrons are left.  This process occurs for molecules as well as solid matter.]

[Accordingly, (14)C may prove to be a source of genetic alteration that is impossible
to avoid due to the universal presence of radiocarbon in the environment.]
Carbon-14 decay . . . [Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI
[Naturally occurring radioactivity muddles DNA - Natural radioactivity within DNA
can alter chemical compounds, providing a new pathway for genetic mutations.]
Welcome to The Visible Embryo

Can DNA Testing Answer a Specific Question About Any Individual Ancestry?
I think DNA research applications for genealogical research are directly related
and equivalent to fingerprinting.  [Even identical twins (who share their DNA)
do not have identical fingerprints.] It is all a matter of assigning a degree of
confidence.  [Since the early 20th century, fingerprint detection and analysis
has been one of the most common and important forms of crime scene forensic
investigation.  More crimes have been solved with fingerprint evidence than
for any other reason.]  Dermatoglyphics is the science by which we can
[determine whether these impressions could have come from the same individual.
The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are ever
exactly alike in every detail; even two impressions recorded immediately after each
other from the same hand may be slightly different.]  So if we want an ancestry
background check, we should gather all the family fingerprints and put them all
together and compare them, both for the father's side and the mother's side. Then,
with the same degree of confidence of determining DNA "matches", we should be
able to directly trace back all our ancestry.  Yes, No, Maybe?  Biometric [identification
utilizing a physical attribute that is unique to every human] includes [iris recognition,
the use of dental records in forensic dentistry, the tongue and DNA profiling, also
known as genetic fingerprinting.]  The problem I have with all of this is the logic
behind the big story, because I am told that DNA is the "engine" that creates all
of this unique identification in every human being.  That, however, says to me,
that over generations of time, every person, father, son, mother daughter, brother,
sister, relative, each had a former DNA "engine" creator that produced another
individual that in and of itself, starts off life with its own altered DNA "record"
(it must be so to produce individuality); this then produces other altered DNA
"records" in its posterity.  So, the issue is not with the continuous replication
process which is so nicely discussed exactingly in family history DNA related
venues, it is with the very fact that everyone who is a human being is individually
genetically altered.  And unless you can trace genealogy created patterns
in fingerprints, iris recognition, or some other form of biometric identification,
you certainly cannot with confidence, trace back with any degree of certainty,
unique DNA profiling, which ever so minutely changes from one person to another,
over all generations of time. This is of course my own personal opinion on the matter,
(speaking as an expert genealogical research specialist), as fortified by my own
experience of seeing enthusiastic DNA potential "matches" that are in professional
research, directly contradicted by written record sources.
It Is All 100% Relevant and Appropriate.
DNA Alone Can Never Answer A Specific Question.

* Cyndi's List - DNA, Genetics & Family Health

Cyndi’s List DNA Quick Look.pdf
* DNA: Kerchner's DNA Testing & Genetic Genealogy Information & Resources
  - AncestryDNA™ | DNA Tests for Ethnicity & Genealogy DNA Test
    Research Note:  DNA myths about discovering ancient ancestry prior to 4,000 B.C.,
    are not based upon standard, credible written documentation.  Genealogies of
    recorded human history invalidate false time and location assumptions of origins.
    - Announcements of DNA Projects -
DNA Research -
  - DNA & Genealogy: Kinship: Grandparents, Cousins & Other Relatives
    Genealogists are using DNA as evidence to establish
    the probability of (
how likely
) -- or disprove -- a lineage.
  - DNA & Genealogy: Understanding Exactly How Tests Reinforce Folk Ideologies
    - Updated links to the above article, as of 08 Dec 2013:
Alan Macfarlane's Web Site: Table of Contents
        - Illegitimacy and Illegitimates in English History (pdf)

Introduction to Genetic Genealogy - Alan Savin
List of Former Sovereign States
      - MARTIN / MARTAIN / MARTINE / Surname DNA Project
      - "Showing Who They Really Are" Commercial Ventures In Genetic Genealogy
        - Assistant Professor in the Department of Anthropology - UT Austin
      - Who Owns Native Culture?
        Resources for understanding the struggle for control of indigenous knowledge.
Biopiracy/bioprospecting includes article by Deborah A. Bolnick
          - Genetic "Markers"- Not a Valid Test of Native Identity
"Native American DNA" Tests: What are the Risks to Tribes? (pdf)
    Studies of extant records are a reality check, showing that early church,
    civil laws and historical common group practices present a great hindrance,
    in accepting DNA projections as conclusive or genealogically practical.  Thus,
    scientific DNA studies appear to be subject to historical marital happiness within
    the set of any given ancestry. [DNA testing relies on unbroken male lineages. It
    can be foiled by unknown breaks in the blood line. Sources of breaks include:
    (1) hanky-panky with the neighbor,
    (2) a pregnant bride marrying the wrong man
    (3) unrecorded adoptions.]
DNA Evidence Can Be Fabricated, Scientists Show - The New York Times
    Using some of the same techniques, it may be possible to scavenge anyone’s DNA
    from a discarded drinking cup or cigarette butt and turn it into a saliva sample
    that could be submitted to a genetic testing company that measures ancestry
    or the risk of getting various diseases.
    - Authentication of forensic DNA samples - Forensic Science International: Genetics
    - Genealogy site lets people create fake relative profiles with your DNA, study reveals
  . DNA Quest
    Pro bono project to reunite adoptees using DNA - MyHeritage.

DNA Testing: A Plus (+) or Minus (-) For Genealogy?
    Mathematics Indicates That It Just Does Not Add Up.
  - DNA Testing for Genealogy
    " Most Recent Common Ancestor Calculations: By using average marker mutation
    rates it is possible to compare two profiles and back-calculate how long ago their
    most recent common ancestor lived. This method is derived from anthropological
    science and although of some use, has a margin of error that reduces its
    usefulness in individual family history studies."
  - DNA Testing Guide for Genealogy, Adoption Search, and Paternity
GEDmatch Login
      GEDmatch provides DNA and genealogical analysis tools
      for amateur and professional researchers and genealogists.
      - GEDmatch | Ars Technica
        "No court order was needed to access
        that site’s large database of genetic blueprints."
Updated Look at GedMatch | The Legal Genealogist
      - Using GEDmatch to Supplement Genetic Genealogy DNA Tests
        To participate in this site you must have results from at least one
        of these three autosomal DNA tests:
AncestryDNA - 23andMe - Family Finder
    - Pulling Back the Curtain on DNA Ancestry Tests | Tufts Now
Ancestry DNA Testing and Privacy: A Consumer Guide (pdf)
        "Much has been written about the quality and validity of the tests.
        There are no quality assurance guarantees for any
        of the commercial DTC DNA ancestry tests."
Family Tree DNA
    - DNA Surname, Lineage & Geographical Programs
  - Genetic Alliance (Advocacy, education and empowerment)
Resource Repository - Genetic Alliance
      Digital commons for the global health community.  Electronic collection
      of documents, links, audio, and video files, relies on contributions
      from the community in topic areas such as newborn screening,
      family health history, genetic testing, reimbursement, research,
      drug development, community engagement, and organizational development.

  - Genetics & Genealogy
    Y polymorphism and mtDNA analyses.
  - Human Journey: Migration Routes, promoted by National Geographic
    and connected to, with its own DNA Testing, has many incorrect
    assumptions, directly contradicted by ancient records and biblical testimony.
Luke 17: 26-30, the words of Jesus Christ say: "And as it was in the days
    of Noe, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man. They did eat, they drank,
    they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noe entered
    into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all."  Human populations,
    from the early families of Noah, after the world wide division of the earth, were
    comparatively small, isolated groups, geographically independent from each
    other over many hundreds of years, subsequently brought together by colonization
    migrations. Japheth's descendants,
Ham's descendants and Shem's descendants,
    were physically mobile and widespread, upon the total undivided land mass
    of the globe. This is verified by DNA Tribes® Personal Genetic Analysis (archived)
    and (pdf) of world regions, confirming that "within the borders of nearly
    all regions, individuals can be found with genetic ties to neighboring
    and sometimes distant regions."  Reference: 012:  NOAH (the son of LAMECH).
    Historical records invalidate as false
pseudoscience, DNA male projections
    in origins, prior to 3000 B.C., or female projections in origins, prior to 4000 B.C.
    The atlas of recorded human history invalidates false time assumptions of origins.
Identity and Genetic Ancestry Tracing | BMJ
    The problem is that mapping Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA
    polymorphisms will trace only two genetic lines on a family tree in
    which branches double with each preceding generation.
  - Ignorance, False Promises and Pseudoscience
    Is this profit promotion of DNA fiction by senior genealogists?
Interpreting the Results of Genetic Genealogy Tests (pdf)
    I have the results of my genetic genealogy test.  Now what?
L'Observatoire de la génétique
    Recreational genetics, race and relatedness.

  - Science & Business of Genetic Ancestry Testing | Science/AAAS
    Commercially available tests of genetic ancestry have significant
    scientific limitations, but are serious matters for many test-takers.
  - SMGF: Sorenson Genealogy Molecular Foundation
SMGF: DNA Resources
    - SMGF: Genealogy Resources
  - World Families Network: Ysearch
    Free and fee based global databases for genealogists
    to connect with potential DNA relatives.
* – Launching the Whole Earth Genealogy Project
  Study of future trends and predictions by futurist Thomas Frey.

* Genealogy| NBC News - Genetic Genelogy
  How science is filling out family trees.
Genealogy's Star: The History of the Development of Genealogical DNA
DNA, Genealogy, and Political Entities
Part One, An Introduction
Part Two: Looking Back into the Distant Past
  - Part Three: Early Views
    - The History of the Development of Genealogical DNA
      does not begin with the handed down Jewish Torah (Biblical) documents,
      but with statements contained within the Pearl of Great Price.
    - Urim and Thummim: Lights and Perfection; and Genealogy.
      Adam and Eve therefore had, along with all of their righteous posterity,
      access to this perfect knowledge source. This gave them the capacity
      to live long lives, because the words of Jesus Christ are the source
      of all light and life, and the reception of the Holy Ghost, through baptism,
      regenerated their bodies, in preparation for immortal glory.
      The modern scientific world has largely rejected the findings
      of the Urim and Thummim, and replaced it with bogus genetic
      DNA Urim and defective radiocarbon Thummim dating time periods.
Part Four: The Dark Side
  - Part Five: Discovering the Gene
    - The History of Genetics begins with statements found in a "Discourse,
      between circa 26 June and circa 4 August 1839 - A,
      as Reported by Willard Richards"
Part Six: What do You Need to Know?
Part Seven: The Complete Genome
  - Part Eight: Discovering DNA
Part Nine: Without Leaving a Fingerprint
  - Part Ten: The Advance of DNA Testing
    "Genealogists, for the most part, ignore the technical, legal requirement
    for establishing a valid relationship and jump past all of the custodial
    and testing requirements and formulate their opinions based on the findings
    of unsubstantiated DNA tests that do not provide for verification." Bottom Line:
    There is no ethical or moral foundation for using unsubstantiated DNA tests;
    they discredit any and all professional genealogical research pedigrees.
    - "Don't Have a Cow—It's No Big Deal"
      Neanderthal DNA is a modern golden calf (cash cow). Denisovan DNA
      is another modern golden calf (cash cow). They are simply "scientific" replacements
      of medieval folklore, such as Mr. Odin, found in the recorded histories of Germanic
      and Norse mythology. . . . From a genealogical research standpoint,
      their overreach; it is an abominable disgrace. The team of "scientists",
      so called, should work for Disney, their imaginations run so rampant.
      - DNA Testing | Learn About All Types of DNA Tests
        - Guide to Finding the Best DNA Ancestry Test
  - Part Eleven: Moving from Paternity to Genealogy
  - Part Twelve: What do I do with my DNA Data?
  - Part Thirteen: Privacy and DNA Testing
Genetic Disorder Information on the Web
* Genetic Disorders & Birth Defects Info Center
  Guide: resource center for the complex world
  of genetics, genetic disorders and birth defects.
Identifying the Causes of Birth Defects | March of Dimes
Genetics Home Reference
  Guide to understanding genetic conditions.
* In Search of Our "Biblical Common Ancestor" (Patrick Young Ph. D.)
  Christians need to realize that several assumptions in the scientific analyses
  are distinctly evolutionary and hence unbiblical.  Realistically, a significant
  amount of the data is subject to conjecture from cladistics, demographic models,
  and parsimony analysis.  This discussion will evaluate the scientific methods
  used to certify these results and determine if the conclusions are justified.
  - Calibrating the Mitochondrial Clock
    Using the new clock, "mitochondrial Eve" would be a mere 6,000 years old.
  - Discovery Institute
    Public policy think tank advancing a culture of purpose, creativity, and innovation.
  - Lists of Creationist Scientists - RationalWiki
* International Society of Genetic Genealogy:
  - Journal of Genetic Genealogy
List of DNA Testing Companies
  - Timeline: History of Genetic Genealogy
* Nebula
  Get sequenced. Discover your DNA and ancestry.
Origin of Man
  “God created man in his own image” ((
Genesis 1: 27). . . .
  The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, basing its belief
  on divine revelation, ancient and modern, proclaims man to be
  the direct and lineal offspring of Deity.  God Himself is an exalted
  man, perfected, enthroned, and supreme.  By His almighty power He
  organized the earth and all that it contains, from spirit and element,
  which exist coeternally with Himself.  He formed every plant that grows
  and every animal that breathes, each after its own kind, spiritually and
  temporally --“that which is spiritual being in the likeness of that which is
  temporal, and that which is temporal in the likeness of that which is spiritual.”
  - Mountain of Names (Genealogy)
  - Spiritual Matter | Book of Mormon Research
    "Spirit is a substance; that it is material, but that it is more pure, elastic
    and refined matter than the body; that it existed before the body, can
    exist in the body; and will exist separate from the body, when the body
    will be mouldering in the dust; and will in the resurrection,
    be again united with it. (History of the Church 4:575). Chapter 33
* RootsWeb: Genealogy Mailing Lists
  Genealogy - DNA.
* Social, Cultural & Religious Issues in Genetics
Genetics & Identity
    Notable scholars from genetics, philosophy, medicine, law,
    religious studies, sociology, cultural anthropology and history;
    as well as scholars whose work is intimately tied to questions
    of race and ethnicity, such as those working in African-American
    Studies, Jewish Studies, and Native American Studies.
Surname DNA Project
  Genetic genealogy project which uses genealogical DNA tests to trace male lineage.
  - BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | DNA 'could predict your surname'
    Dr. Jobling emphasises the limitations of the method; it could have
    some predictive power in just under half the population, after
    excluding common surnames like Smith, Taylor and Williams.
  - Chinese Surnames Today
    Although there are thousands of Chinese family names,
    the 100 most common surnames, which together make up
    less than 5 percent of those in existence,
    are shared by 85 percent of the population.
  - Korean Name
    45% of Korean people bear the family name Kim, Lee, or Park.
Name Thesaurus
    386 million + variants identified for 5,946,000 surnames and growing.

↑ upΛ [helix dna]    Genealogy DNA - Google™ Search

GENETICS - GENERAL: Genetics - Index of Genetics Articles - Topic Outline of Genetics
* DNA Learning Center [Evolution's hovel is built with fictive DNA straw.]
  World's largest provider of student lab instruction in molecular genetics.
* DNA Testing Guide for Genealogy, Adoption Search, and Paternity
GEDmatch Login
    GEDmatch provides DNA and genealogical analysis tools
    for amateur and professional researchers and genealogists.
    - GEDmatch | Ars Technica
      "No court order was needed to access
      that site’s large database of genetic blueprints."
Updated Look at GedMatch | The Legal Genealogist
    - Using GEDmatch to Supplement Genetic Genealogy DNA Tests
      To participate in this site you must have results from at least one
      of these three autosomal DNA tests:
AncestryDNA - 23andMe - Family Finder
  - Pulling Back the Curtain on DNA Ancestry Tests | Tufts Now
Ancestry DNA Testing and Privacy: A Consumer Guide (pdf)
      "Much has been written about the quality and validity of the tests.
      There are no quality assurance guarantees for any
      of the commercial DTC DNA ancestry tests."

ExPASy: SIB Bioinformatics Resource Portal: Links
  - Life Science Directory: Gateways (Portals)
Forensic Science - Topic Outline of Forensics
  - Links Center
    - Biology - DNA
Authentication of Forensic DNA Samples
        . . . standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR,
        molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome
        amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment
        and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of
        in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic
. . . Adopting an authentication assay for casework
        samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for
        maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the
        judiciary system.
United States Department of Justice Interim Policy
      Forensic Genetic Genealogical DNA Analysis and Searching.
* Genes for Good
  Genes for Good is a research study conducted at the University of Michigan.
  The major goal of the study is to engage tens of thousands of individuals
  in genetic research. The primary tool to accomplish this is the Genes for Good
  Facebook App. Participants engage in the study through the App, answer health-
  related questions, and view summaries of selected survey questions.
Genes for Good: Engaging the Public in Genetics Research via Social Media
    Genes for Good study uses social media to engage a large, diverse participant pool
    in genetics research and education. Health history and daily tracking surveys
    are administered through a Facebook application, and participants who complete
    a minimum number of surveys are mailed a saliva sample kit (“spit kit”) to collect
    DNA for genotyping. As of March 2019, we engaged >80,000 individuals, sent spit kits
    to >32,000 individuals who met minimum participation requirements, and collected
    >27,000 spit kits. Participants come from all 50 states and include a diversity
    of ancestral backgrounds. Rates of important chronic health indicators
    are consistent with those estimated for the general U.S. population
    using more traditional study designs. However, our sample is younger
    and contains a greater percentage of females than the general population.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics
Genes for Good: Harnessing the power of Facebook
      to study a large, diverse genetic pool - YouTube™
      Collecting DNA samples for human genetic studies can be an expensive,
      lengthy process that has often made it difficult to include diverse populations
      in studies of medical and health data.
Genes for Good - How To Participate
      The first step is to log into the App and read the study information and --
      if you agree with our study plan -- consent. If you participate, you can provide
      information about your health and behavior by answering surveys. Once you
      complete a specified number, you become eligible to volunteer saliva through
      the mail. At the moment, due to extremely high interest, we currently have
      a waitlist for participants who would like to provide a sample. You can still
      participate in the surveys and see summaries of your survey responses.
* Genetic Privacy
  Electronic privacy information center.
* Human Genetics: Human Genome
GenomeWeb - Lists of Genome Sites
    Genome programs of the U.S. Department of Energy.
Human Genome Project Information
      - Exploring Genes & Genetic Disorders
National Human Genome Research Institute
    When investigators attempt to document and study the natural history
    of an inherited disease, condition, or characteristic, they do so by
    identifying individual members of families presenting the disease,
    condition, or characteristic and obtaining information about them
    and the other members of their family.  The result is a pedigree analysis,
    which, in addition to tracing the natural history of a disease and documenting
    the range of symptoms involved, may also reveal information about family
    members that individual members may not have known about previously
    (e.g., the existence of previously unknown relatives or the presence
    of stigmatizing diseases, such as mental illness).
  - Personal Genome Project can establish a complete sequence and analysis of
Genome, while treating as meaningless, the very concept of real attachment
    to one's own personal family ancestry, as well as true faith in mankind's biblical
    heritage.  Jesus Christ said: "For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the
    whole world, and lose his own soul?  Or what shall a man give in exchange for
    his soul?"  DNA has no value beyond the validation of real human relationships.

Learn.Genetics™ and Teach.Genetics™
University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center
online free science and health education programs.
OMIM® - Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man®

  Catalog of human genes and genetic disorders.
* Undark
  Truth, Beauty, Science.
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HISTORY of MEDICINE: Timeline of Medicine & Medical Technology

* American Association for the History of Medicine
AAHM Related Sites
    Searching for information on the history of medicine.
Dittrick Medical History Center: Links to Medical History Web Sites

    Medical museums, archives and libraries in the U.S. and global.
Medicine in the Americas, 1619-1914: A Digital Library
  Devoted to the study of ancient medicine.

* Chronology of State Medicine (pdf)
  Public health, welfare and related services in Britain, 1066 - 1999.
* Contagion - Historical Views of Diseases & Epidemics
  General background information on diseases and epidemics worldwide,
  and is organized around significant “episodes” of contagious disease.
Directory of History of Medicine Collections
Collections by State in the United States
  - Other Countries:
Argentina - Australia - Belgium - Brazil - Canada - Denmark
    France - Germany - India Ireland - Israel - Italy - Mexico
    New Zealand - Poland - South Africa - Spain - Switzerland
    Syria -
United Kingdom

Emotions and Disease: Historical Perspective
* Folk Medicine
* Historia y Patrimonio Cultural de la Salud
  Quality evaluated web resources on the history of health
  and medicine in Latin America and the Caribbean.
History of Drugs: Online Texts about Drugs & Medicines
  Guide to Internet resources related to the history of drugs and medicines.

* History of Epidemics & Plagues
History of the Health Sciences
Bibliographies / Chronologies / Histories
  - Databases
  - For Children
  - History of Diseases
History of the Health Sciences Blogs
  - History of the Health Sciences Educational Programs
  - History of the Health Sciences Libraries and Archives
  - Important Figures in Health Sciences - Their Lives & Works
  - Journals
  - Links Pages
  - Listservs
  - Newsgroups
  - Oaths, Prayers and Symbols
  - Organizations and Museums with History of the Health Sciences Interests
  - Organizations in the History of the Health Sciences
History of Medicine
  BeckerGuides at Becker Medical Library.
History of Medicine:
History of Medicine Finding Aids Consortium
  U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  - “PROMIS” of Computer-Based Medical Records
History of Medicine and Biography
* History of Medicine On Line
Medical Bookmarks - History of Medicine
* Plague in the Ancient World
Resources for Medical History Papers
Royal College of General Practitioners - History Heritage & Archive: Sitemap
Yale School of Medicine | Yale University: Academic Departments & Sections
Cushing/Whitney Medical Library
Medical Historical Library
: Internet Resources
↑ up

Royal College of General Practitioners genealogical and biographical
information about the medical professional worldwide.
* Cyndi's List - Medical & Medicine
History of Medicine
* International Health & Medical Organizations
* List of Physicians
List of famous physicians in history.
  - AMA Deceased Physicians Card File
    - Directory of Deceased American Physicians, 1804-1929 -
  - AMA Physician Masterfile:
Frequently Asked Questions
  - Category:Medical Biography Stubs
Cleave's Biographical Cyclopædia of Homoeopathic Physicians & Surgeons
Medical - Dental Schools: Students & Professionals
  - British Dental Association - Museum
Nursing History Research Resources - Worldwide
  - American Association for the History of Nursing
* RootsWeb: Genealogy Mailing Lists
  Doctors - Nurses - Midwives.
England Occupations, Nurses, Midwives, Veterinarians
* Tracing Midwives in Your Family (pdf)
Was Your Ancestor A Doctor?
  - Was Your Ancestor a Doctor? (archived)
    For those who have a Doctor in their family tree
    and wish to research their training and accomplishments.

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Family Genealogy & History Internet Education Directory™ - Wiki  |  SEARCH This Site
  Anatomy   Comprehensive Guides & Directories
  Diseases & Disorders   Elderly & Senior Care: Hospitals & Retirement
  Fitness Links: Physical Health & Sports Activities   International Health & Medical Organizations
  Medical - Dental Schools: Students & Professionals   Medical - Professional Databases & Manuals
  Pain & Migraine Resources   Patient Care & Learning Resources
  Pharmacy & Drugs   Pregnancy & Children's Health

  United States Medical & Health Resources

eMedicineHealth - Free Medical - Harvard World Health News (USA) --- Healthline: Go Ask Alice! | CU ---
HON News: HeathDay
MDExpress®:  Medical News & Research Potal for Physicians - Medical News Today
- - News-Medical.Net - Verywell
Wiki Doc - The Living Textbook of Medicine: Genealogy

ANATOMY: Anatomy - Anatomy Atlases™
American Association of Anatomists (AAA): Online Directories
  - Non-AAA Resource Links
  - Teaching & Training Tools
  Interactive tutorials and quizzes on human anatomy and physiology

Gray's Anatomy: Gray's Anatomy
Human Body: Topic Outline of Human Anatomy
Human Anatomy: Learn All About the Human Body at
Neuroscience: Portal:Neuroscience
  "Join together 100 billion neurons with 100 Trillion Connections
  and you have yourself a human brain capable of much, much more."
  From: Scientific American (January 2011, p. 59)
  - American Neurological Association
  - Human Connectome Project (NIH)
    Mapping the human brain connectivity
JNS - Journal of Neurosurgery
    World's leading journal in neurosurgery, and the official journal
    of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons.

Mind and Brain: Portal:Mind and Brain
Neurology, Neuroscience & Neurosurgery Websites
Neuron: Neuron
  - Neuroscience from Eric H. Chudler
Newton Street Study Guide To The Brain
    Curated digital reference library about learning and perception.
  - Secret Life of the Brain: Your Amazing Brain
Terminologia Anatomica
  - Source Terminologies as Originally Published
* Visible Human Project®
Creation of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional
  representations of the normal male and female human bodies.

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Portal:Medicine - Topic Outline of Medicine
Mednar - Deep Web Medical Search - Federated Search
Researching Medical Literature on the Internet – 2008 – LLRX
* AllRefer Health
  Provides general knowledge only that is not a substitute for
  medical advice or treatment for specific medical conditions.
AOL Healthy Living
  News and opinion on The Huffington Post
Biomedical Search
Biomedical search engine contains NIH/PubMed documents, a large collection of theses,
  dissertations, and other proprietary publications not found anywhere else for free,
* CAPHIS | Top 100 Health Websites You Can Trust
  Consumer and patient health information section of the Medical Library Association.
CNN Health: Health A to Z
  Health conditions and definitions library.
Dr. Oz Show | Episodes, Recipes, Articles and more: Topics | The Dr. Oz Show
  Explore, investigate, and enrich your understanding
  of the health topics that matter to you most.

  Health information, resources, tools and news online.
  Health information for the whole family, by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
  Integrating Eastern and Western health and wellness information.
Health Medicine
  Facts Encyclopedia of health and nutrition.
Healthcare Bots and Subject Directories (pdf)
2023 Healthcare MiniGuide – LLRX
* Healthcare Online Resources
  Healthcare search engines, directories, subject trees and subject tracers.
* healthfinder®
  Consumer health and human services information from the U.S. government.
  Alternative health, wellness and healthy living information, articles and news.
Internet Resources for Medicine | Medicine | Information Services
  Free access to the very best web resources for education and research.
JMIR - Journal of Medical Internet Research
Searching for Medical Literature on Internet
* Martindale's Virtual Medical Center
Mayo Clinic
  Medical information and tools for healthy living
Medical / Health Sciences Libraries on the Web
  Medical and Health Sciences Libraries Online

Columbia University Health Sciences Library
Health Science Databases
Hardin Library for the Health Sciences: Subject Guides
    Meta directory from the University of Iowa.
  - Locating Health & Medical Information
    Library of Congress science reference guides.
  Search network covering diseases and treatment, medical dictionary,
  pharmacy, news, ask the experts and what makes you tick.
Open Sources
  Information about global health sources for everyone in the world.
* WebMD®
  Better information for better health. 
Provides valuable health information,
  tools for managing your health and support to those who seek information.
Wellness | Reader's Digest
  Provides the information needed to achieve optimal wellness.
Health & Well-Being: Healthy Living, Mental Health & Exercise | Reader's Digest

* WHO | Global Health Atlas
Yahoo!® Health
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List of Acronyms for Diseases & Disorders

Lists of Diseases: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
* Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
Digitised Diseases
  Open access resource featuring human bones which have been digitised,
  using 3D laser scanning, CT and radiography.

  Search engine for difficult medical cases
Health A-Z - Conditions and Treatments

International Cancer Information Service Group
American Cancer Society®
  - Medical Dictionary Resources | Cancer.Net™
National® Cancer Institute -
  - Oncology - Types of Oncologists: Find an Oncologist Database
* International Society for Infectious Diseases: ProMED-mail
  Global electronic reporting system for outbreaks
  of emerging infectious diseases & toxins, open to all sources.

* National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
* Office of Rare Diseases
  Information on more than 6000 rare diseases, including current research,
  publications from scientific and medical journals, completed research,
  ongoing studies and patient support groups.
  Portal for rare diseases and orphan drugs.
* WHO | Health Topics
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AGHE - Association for Gerontology in Higher Education®: Current Members
  Colleges and universities that offer education, training,
  and research programs in the field of aging.
Online Directory of Educational Programs in Gerontology and Geriatrics

Brunel Institute for Ageing Studies | Brunel University London: Websites
   International and National Gerontology Societies and Networks.
* Elder Law - Law Research Guides at Dickinson School of Law:
  - Center for Excellence in Elder Law - Stetson University College of Law
    - Local Resources Contact List (pdf)
Topic: Elder Law - ABA Journal
* Elder Resources on the Internet (pdf)
  Monitor elder and senior resources on the World Wide Web.
* Hospitals Around the World: Lists -
Ranking Web of Hospitals
  World hospitals' ranking by continent or region, on the web.

  Hospital jobs, nursing jobs and hospital websites.
  - International Network for the History of Hospitals
    - Facebook®:
Members & Their Publications - Publications | INHH
Historic Hospital Admission Records Project: Links
      Kingston University's Centre for Local History Studies
      and various hospital archives in London and Glasgow.
Foundling Museum

  - | Hospital Compare
    Information on how well USA hospitals in your area care
    for all their adult patients with certain
medical conditions.
Hospital Financial | Financial Assistance Made Easy
World Wide Hospital Ships: Mercy Ships
* Inheritance: Estates, Probates, Wills & Testaments
Life Extension: Topic Outline of Life Extension
  - Administration on Aging: Programs
    ACL Administration for Community Living.
      Eldercare Locator is your first step for finding local agencies,
      in every U.S. community, that can help older persons and their
      families access home and community-based services like local
      transportation, meals, home care, and caregiver support services.

  - Aging in the Past (book)
    Demography, society, and old age.
Alliance for Aging Research: Diseases and Conditions
American Federation for Aging Research: Infoaging - Links
    - AARP Research: Insights Impacting Americans 50+
International Association of Gerontology & Geriatrics
American Geriatrics Society
Health in Aging: Aging & Health A To Z

Gerontological Society of Americ®: The Gerontologist
NAELA - National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys
  - National Institute on Aging: Health Information
  - WHO | Ageing and Life Course
Travelers' Health | CDC
Doctors/Hospitals Abroad
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Health: Portal:Health and Fitness - Topic Outline of Health
Physical Exercise: Topic Outline of Exercise - Physical Fitness: Sports
ScienceDaily: Fitness News
10 Terrific Fitness Tracking Devices
* 100 Ways to Get Fit & Stay Healthy With Tech (It’s Easy)
Boys' Life Magazine: Personal Fitness
  Personal fitness is an individual effort and desire to be the best one can be.
* CDC - BAM! Body and Mind
  Healthy youth web site.
Center for Young Women's Health: Nutrition & Fitness Health Guides
  Health information for teen girls around the world.
ExRx (Exercise Prescription) on the Net
  Free resource for the exercise professional, coach, or fitness
  enthusiast featuring comprehensive exercise libraries, fitness
  assessment calculators, and reference articles.
ExRx Beginner's Page: Beginning an Exercise Program
* Fitness Magazine
  Weight-loss plans, video workouts, abs exercises,
  diet plans, beauty tricks, and health advice.

* Sitemap
  Health, fitness and lifestyle.

  Carbohydrate counter.
MedlinePlus®: Sports Fitness
  Sports can be a great way to get in shape or stay that way.
President's Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition: Useful Resources
President's Challenge - You're it. Get fit!
  - Shape Up America!
Prevention Magazine: Fitness
  Exercise and workout tips from fitness experts.

* WebWalking
  Walking, hiking, and trail mapping.
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Health Science: Topic Outline of Health Science
Global Health Education Consortium
Annotated list of international health-related websites.
Humanitarian Aid: Humanitarian Principles
  - Doctors Without Borders
  - International Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent Societies
    - IFRC Directory:
Web Pages
Royal Humane Society: Links to other Organisations
Medical Associations & Medical Societies
  Pharmaceutical and medical associations in the world.
  - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
AfMA - Africa Medical Association

Confederation of Medical Associations in Asia & Oceania
    - Medical Association of South East Asian Nations (MASEAN)
ConfeMeL - Medical Confederation of Latin American & Caribbean
    - Foro Iberoamericano de Entidades Médicas
  - List of Medical Organisations
  - Standing Committee Of European Doctors
Medical Library Association | MLANET
* Tracing Your Medical Ancestors
WHO | World Health Organization: Countries
  Health is a shared responsibility, involving equitable access
  to essential care and collective defense against transnational threats.
WHO | Programmes & Projects
World Medical Association: Members' List
International organization representing physicians, through
  an independent confederation of free professional associations.
Partners with Institutions, Alliances & Groups

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Dentistry: Portal:Dentistry - Topic Outline of Dentistry
FDI World Dental Federation: Directory
    Leading the world to optimal oral health
American Dental Association®: Find A Dentist
    - Canadian Dental Association - Your Oral Health
* Elderly & Senior Care: Hospitals & Retirement
* Global Health Workforce Alliance | WHO: Members & Partners
Full List of All Members & Partners
  - Global Members & Partners
Health Occupations: MedlinePlus
  Health professions, medical occupations and medical professions.

HSL Wiki Farm - Health Sciences Library - University at Buffalo Libraries
  For use in class projects, collaborative research and writing,
  or other academic endeavors.  These wikis are authored and
  maintained by the librarians and graduate reference assistants.

International Confederation of Midwives: ICM - Knowledge Area
  Midwifery research and partners
Midwives Chronicle: The Heritage Blog of the Royal College of Midwives
    Midwifery history from the Royal College of Midwives.

International Federation of Gynecology & Obstetrics: Member Associations
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Heritage Blog
    Bringing to life the history of women's health care.
* International Federation of Medical Students' Associations 
  - IFMSA National Member Organisations List (Worldwide)

International Hospital Federation: Resources
* International Pediatric Association (IPA)
* International Physician List
  Global, for pay worldwide physician mailing list.
United States Medical & Health Resources
    - Directories: Find a Library
      Find libraries, health professionals, services and facilities.
      NLM does not endorse or recommend the organizations
      that produce these directories, nor the individuals or
      organizations that are included in the directories.

      Find a doctor by health insurance.  Read doctor reviews.
      Basic professional information on virtually every licensed physician
      in the United States.  This includes more than 814,000 doctors.
American Medical Association (AMA): News Archives
AMA Membership
Medical Student Section
          Largest organization of medical students in the USA.

          - American Medical Student Association®

    - WebMD® Physician Directory
      Find a doctor in your area
* International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS)
  - Directory of International & Regional Organizations of Psychology
Psychology Resources Around the World

Medical Associations & Medical Societies
Pharmaceutical and medical associations in the world.
  - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

* Medical School: List of Medical Schools
AVICENNA Directory Medicine – University of Copenhagen
Directory of Medical Schools
  Digital library of authoritative medical
  information for all students of medicine.
Medicine Discipline - ResearchGate: Allied Health Professions
  Meet fellow scientists, view their profiles and read their blogs,
  discuss with them about the latest medicine issues, join or form
  groups that focus on specific topics and find jobs in the discipline.
Mulford Library: Instructions to Authors
  Instructions to authors for over 6,000
  journals in the health and life sciences.
Nurse - Nursing: Portal:Nursing
ICN - International Council of Nurses: ICN Networks - Members List
National Nursing Associations
  - Royal College of Nursing
Pharmacy & Drugs
Practical Guide to Clinical Medicine: Selected Medical Links
Student Doctor Network® | A Nonprofit Educational Organization
  Assist and encourage all students through the challenging
  and complicated healthcare education process and into practice.
* Tracing Your Medical Ancestors
* World Confederation for Physical Therapy: Member Organisations
  - American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance
Aerobics & Fitness Association of America®: Chinese - Japanese - Spanish
    Personal trainer, group exercise and aerobics certification.
AFAA Distance Education Center
American Physical Therapy Association
  - Association for Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback:
Resources & Information
  - Association for Experiential Education: Links & Articles
  - Complementary & Alternative Therapies
    Increasing awareness of the effectiveness and benefits of natural, holistic health.
World Council of Optometry: Our Members
World Psychiatric Association: Membership Directory
  - American Psychiatric Association
    - DSM-5: DSM-5 Educational Resources
      - The Best Mental Health Test: Do You Need Therapy?
      - The Empty Brain, as opposed to; in contrast to; versus Doctrine and Covenants 93.
        . . . Ye were also in the beginning with the Father; that which is Spirit, even
        the Spirit of truth; And truth is knowledge of things as they are, and as they were,
        and as they are to come; And whatsoever is more or less than this is the spirit
        of that wicked one who was a liar from the beginning. The Spirit of truth is of God.
        I am the Spirit of truth, and John bore record of me, saying: He received a fulness
        of truth, yea, even of all truth; And no man receiveth a fulness unless he keepeth
        his commandments. He that keepeth his commandments receiveth truth and light,
        until he is glorified in truth and knoweth all things. Man was also in the beginning
        with God. Intelligence, or the light of truth, was not created or made, neither
        indeed can be. All truth is independent in that sphere in which God has placed it,
        to act for itself, as all intelligence also; otherwise there is no existence. Knowledge
        of facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience; learned
        education; theoretical or practical understanding of a subject; having "a thirst for
true, justified belief; certain understanding, as opposed to opinion.
        [In his book In Our Own Image (2015), the artificial intelligence expert
        George Zarkadakis describes six different metaphors people have employed over
        the past 2,000 years to try to explain human intelligence. In the earliest one,
        eventually preserved in the Bible, humans were formed from clay or dirt,
        which an intelligent god then infused with its spirit. That spirit ‘explained’
        our intelligence – grammatically, at least.]

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* BMJ - British Medical Journal
  Publishing the newest, cutting edge academic research, providing professional
  development solutions and creating clinical decision support tools.
* Cochrane Library
  Collection of six databases that contain different types of high-quality,
  independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making.

* Definition of Medical Words:
Medical Subject Headings
  Not-for-profit hub created by medical students with the aim of collaborating
  with consultants to produce a comprehensive resource for fellow students.
* DynaMed Plus®
Clinical reference tool which provides fast, easy access
  to the latest evidence-based information.
 Updated daily.
Family Medicine News | Family Medicine Articles | Family Medicine Journals
MDLinx Family Medicine helps physicians and healthcare professionals
  stay up to date with the latest family medicine news articles and research,
  as well as family medicine jobs, conferences, and resources.

Free Medical Books4Doctors: Topics
  Promoting free access to medical books.
Future Science Group | Vision in Scientific and Medical Publishing
  Focused on breakthrough medical, biotechnological and scientific research.
Health & Literacy Special Collection
  Supports the integration of health and literacy education in adult basic education
  programs and health literacy awareness in health care settings.  Easy-to-read health
  information and health resources in languages other than English.
reflective of current research and professional wisdom within health - literacy fields.
Literature, Arts and Medicine Database
  Annotated multimedia listing of prose, poetry, film, video and art that was developed
  to be a dynamic, accessible, comprehensive resource for teaching and research in
  medical humanities, and for use in health/pre-health, graduate and undergraduate
  liberal arts and social science settings.

Searches, information, news and resources for the medical,
  pharmaceutical and healthcare professional.

* MedlinePlus®:
Family History
  Index database of information on hundreds of diseases, conditions & wellness issues.
* Medscape®
  Offers specialists, primary care physicians and other health professionals
  integrated medical information and education tools.
Merck Manual of Medical Information--Home Edition
Explains disorders, who is likely to get them, their symptoms,
  how they're diagnosed, how they might be prevented, and how
  they can be treated; also provides information about prognosis.

National Health Service (UK): LinkListing
eMC Medicine Guides

Online medicines information resource for patients and the general public in the UK.
  Comprehensive medical search engine.
  Open access archive for medical and allied sciences.

Retina: Search.Learn.Heal
  Online tool for medical students and doctors to find latest treatment guidelines,
free full text articles, power-point presentation and many more things.

↑ upΛ

Migraine - Pain

International Association for the Study of Pain
* Pain (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
UCLA Biomedical Library History & Special Collections:
Internet Resources
    John C. Liebeskind History of Pain Collection.
  Professional and consumer information on pain.
World Headache Alliance
American Headache Society®:
Other Websites & Information | ACHE
Migraine Headache - McKinley Health Center - University of Illinois
  - Migraine - Headache Resource Center -
Migraine Headache Overview, Types of Migraines
Migraine headache is a throbbing or pulsating headache
    that is often one sided (unilateral) and associated with nausea;
    vomiting; sensitivity to light, sound, and smells; sleep disruption;
    and depression. Migraine attacks are often recurrent and tend
    to become less severe as the migraine sufferer ages.

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AMA - Patients (resources for Patients)
  From finding a doctor to exploring health care careers;
  from health and medicine resources to helping us advocate
  for patients' rights.  What you need to know-all in one place.

Family Health Guide Online: New Information by Chapter
The Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide is a 1300-page book
  that brings you the latest information -- what you need to know to keep
  yourself and your family healthy and to cope with illness.  It also provides
  you with the information you need to deal with the sometimes confusing
  and frustrating world of managed care.
* Find A Helpline
  Struggling? Get free, confidential support from a real human
  over phone, text or webchat.
  Learn from the world's best doctors, online, by watching surgical procedures
  and medical lectures from expert physicians at leading academic medical centers.
  Online library of curated, on-demand educational videos in 4K or 360 virtual reality.
Global Health
GHDonline | Global Health Delivery Online: GHD
    Improving health care delivery through global collaboration.
Health Care
: Urgent Care
  - Health Care Provider
* Health On the Net Foundation (HON)
  Guide lay persons or non-medical users and medical practitioners
  to useful and reliable online medical and health information.
International Alliance of Patients' Organizations
Global Directory of Patients' Organizations
    Global voice for patients.

  Information basics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation-CPR.
Lessons - Teacher Resources
  Life Sciences Learning Center - University of Rochester Medical Center.
Medicines and Me
* Mental Health Resource Foundation
Library of mental illness, addiction, and emotional resources
  for Latter-day Saints and other religious denominations.
Selected Web Sites - History and Physical Exam
Physical Exam Study Guides (pdf - Physical assessment)
Practical Guide to Clinical Medicine - Medical Links

  Drug rehab programs, alcohol rehabilitation centers,
  mental health services and eating disorders treatment.
* YourSurgery.Com®
  Multimedia database of operative procedures designed
  to educate the average individual about their surgery.
  Site explains the most commonly performed surgeries,
  using simple diagrams and cutting edge animation.
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History of Drugs: Online Texts about Drugs & Medicines
Guide to Internet resources related to the history of drugs and medicines.
DRUGS: Drugstores
  Free online d
atabase, bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource,
  that combines detailed drug data with comprehensive drug target information.

  Noncommercial, evidence-based, consumer health and drug information site
  dedicated to empowering consumers to make informed choices about drugs
  and treatment options.
*™ - -
Prescription Drug Information
  Prescription drugs, information, side effects and interactions.
Herbal: Herb - Herbalism - History of Herbalism
  - List of Culinary Herbs and Spices
List of Plants Used in Herbalism
* List of Drugs - List of Medical Abbreviations
  A B C D E F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Physicians' Desk Reference:®
  Prescribe with precision™.
PDR Health™
    Rx drug interactions and side effects.
* RxList
  Internet drug index.
U.S. Food & Drug Administration - Drugs: Drugs@FDA
  Center for drug evaluation and research.
Office of Generic Drugs
PHARMACY: Pharmacy - Portal:Pharmacy & Pharmacology
* International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)
Member Organisations - FIP
World List Of Pharmacy Schools
* International Society for the History of Pharmacy: Internet Resources
PerBo´s History of Pharmacy Web Pages (archived) - Websites
  American Pharmacists Association®: APhA.
* Pharmacology Departments World-Wide
* Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS)
  Dedicated professional body for pharmacists in
England, Scotland and Wales.
  - History of Pharmacy
Networks A-Z
Societies of Pharmacology World-Wide
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PREGNANCY and CHILDREN'S HEALTH: Obstetrics - Pediatrics
Child Development Index - Child Well-Being Portal: Child Well-Being Category

* BabyZone®
  Pregnancy, parenting and family planning community and resources.
Child Health Research In Europe: Riche Member Locations - Organizations
  Knowledge on child health comprising recent scientific publications,
  grey literature, research projects and creating a virtual research community.
  Pregnancy and childbirth information.
Children's Hospital: List of Children's Hospitals
  - Children's Hospital Association
(Facebook®): Directories
Children's Hospital Boston (USA): KidsMD Health Topics
    - A B C D E F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
      Look up information on your child's illness or condition.
  Putting the care into children's health.
* All Topics
  From the American Academy of Pediatrics.
HUGGIES® Enjoy The Ride:
Site Map
  All-things happy and healthy for pregnancy,
  birth, your baby and unpredictable todler.
* KidsHealth®
  Web's most visited site about children's health.
* March of Dimes®
  Pregnancy, babies and prematurity.
  Parenting, pregnancy, conception and baby names.

* Teratology Society:
Resources for Families and the General Public
  Determine causes, mechanisms, treatment and prevention of birth defects.
UNICEF | United Nations Children's Fund: Publications
  Sharing knowledge and transforming children's lives.
Whole Child Education: Resources
↑ up


American Medical Writers Association: AMWA Education
  Resource for medical communicators.
American Psychological Association (APA)
  Advance the creation, communication and application
  of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives.

Health Care in the United States: Health Insurance
Federal Employees Health Benefits Program
    - OPM-Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
    collects information on thousands of state-licensed providers who specialize
    in treating substance use disorders, addiction, and mental illness.
  - Healthcare Practitioners Databases in State Agency Databases
    Health Insurance Marketplace, Affordable Care Act.
Indian Health Service: IHS
Military Health System: MHS
    Military health, active duty, veterans and military families.
      Military Health Plan
  - Veterans Health Administration
    - VA Health Benefits & Services
Health, Medicine & Safety Sources in State Agency Databases
* Scorecard - USA
  Environmental information in various communities,
  including pollution, toxic chemicals, health risks
  and what actions can be taken.
State Health Facts | The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation
urrent state-level data on demographics, health and health policy,
  including health coverage, access, financing and state legislation.
County Health Rankings
United States Department of Health & Human Services:
Administration for Children & Families: ACF
  - Administration on Aging: ACL - Administration for Community Living
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention: CDC - CDC A-Z Index
    Online source for credible health information.  CDC 24/7:
    Saving lives, protecting people, reducing health costs.
National Center for Health Statistics
  - Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
Medicaid: The Medicaid Resource Book | The H. J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Describes four pivotal aspects of how the Medicaid program operates --
      who it covers, what it covers, how it is financed, and how it is administered.
    - Medicare (United States)
    - State Children's Health Insurance Program: State Health Agency
Details for Title: Medicaid & CHIP
Food & Drug Administration
    - U S Food & Drug Administration
Health Resources & Services Administration
    - U.S. Health Resources & Services Administration
HHS Information Resources Directory |
    Find links to HHS information sources, benefits eligibility guidelines,
    health care and human services locators, health insurance contacts,
    statistics, reports, and tools to compare healthcare facilities
    and Medicare coverage options.
National Institutes of Health: NIH - Site Map
    Making important discoveries that
    improve health and save lives.
National Library of Medicine: MedPix® - NLM -
Site Map
      World's largest medical library.  The Library collects
      materials and provides information and research services
      in all areas of biomedicine and health care. 
Fact Sheet.
MedlinePlus®: Site Map
        Health Information from the National Library of Medicine.
Organizations Providing Health Information Arranged by Topic
National Information Center on Health Services Research & HC Technology
        - Health Services Research & Public Health Information Programs
        - HSR Information Central:
Site Map
          Serve the information needs of the health services research community.
          - Alphabetical List:
            A B C D E
F G H  I  J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
National Network of Libraries of Medicine
NN/LM Health Information on the Web
  - Preparedness
    Public health emergency.
Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration
    - Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration
United States Public Health Service

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