The LORD Jesus Christ,
Jews, The House of Joseph, Gentiles and Heathens:
A Careful Study of the TINNEY Surname from Worldwide Origins.

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Document Section from the Birth of Jesus Christ - to A.D.   476
Document Section from the Middle Ages: A.D. 476 to A.D. 1453

Sample Reference to Early Tinney   [and Variations]  Surnames

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Tannaim, i.e., the tanna, or Teni were the ancient Jewish scholars,
expounding law and teaching the people in synagogues and academies,
the foundations of an ancient University.  In Jerusalem there was at the Temple
Mount the Avtinus chamber room, where incense was compounded for later
use in the offerings upon the Golden Altar.  Beth Ab was the name for the
Father's House, the Temple at Jerusalem.  This holy chamber [Av (father)
+ tinus; Ab is a variant of Av, part of Aramaic abba, father], was named
the Jewish aristocratic Avtinus family, merchants and spice makers.
According to the Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 12, Seder Mo'ed, (Vol. IV),
Shekalim, Chapter V, page 19: the House of Abtinas [was] over the preparing
of the frankincense.  Theophrastus [372-288/7 B.C.], the disciple of Aristotle,
mentions that:  "Among the plants that grow in Arabia, Syria and India the aromatic
plants are somewhat exceptional and distinct from the plants of other lands;
for instance, frankincense, myrrh, cassia, opobalsam, cinnamon and all
other such plants," noted in Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism,
Vol. I, page 15, # 7.

According to the Book of Mormon, Helaman, Ch. 16: 13-14, But it came
to pass in the ninetieth year of the reign of the judges (2. B.C.), there were
great signs given unto the people, and wonders; and the words of the prophets
began to be fulfilled.  And angels did appear unto men, wise men, and did
declare unto them glad tidings of great joy; thus in this year the scriptures
began to be fulfilled.  Just and devout Simeon, of the Temple at Jerusalem,
said: "For mine eyes have seen Thy salvation (the Lord's Christ),
which Thou hast prepared before the face of all people; a light to lighten
the Gentiles, and the glory of Thy people Israel." [St. Luke 2: 30-32]
Jesus Christ
was thus honored as the Lamb of God, the eternal sacrifice
for the sins of Israel and all mankind.

The wise men from the east who came into the house where Jesus Christ lived
as a young child (St. Matthew, 2:1-11), saw Him with Mary his mother, and fell
down, and worshipped Him: and when they had opened their treasures, they
presented unto Him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.  Gold was sent
annually to the Temple at Jerusalem, from communal contributions, suggesting
the wise men from the east came as legal and lawful representatives from Syria,
Arabia, India or beyond.  The presentation of the gift of frankincense, used
as part of the exclusive Jewish priesthood Temple rite of sacrifice, at Jerusalem,
was a symbolic recognition of the Holy Priesthood Authority of Jesus Christ,
as Lord and Royal Master, even as a little child.

An audience before King Herod, with his subsequent conference, a large
gathering of all the chief priests and scribes of the people together,
indicates a diplomatic contact of the highest order, that troubled all in the City
of Jerusalem.  Now it came to pass that the ninety and first year had passed
away and it was six hundred years from the time that Lehi left Jerusalem
[A.D. 1]; . . . and Nephi, the son of Helaman, had departed . . . giving charge
unto his son Nephi . . . concerning the plates of brass, and all the records
which had been kept, and all those things which had been kept sacred
from the departure of Lehi out of Jerusalem. Then he departed out of the land,
and whither he went, no man knoweth, as mentioned in the Book of Mormon.
This Nephi had the Melchizedek priesthood authority and the knowledge
to ask: "Where is He that is born King of the Jews?"  [correctly translated as:
"Where is the child that is born, the Messiah of the Jews? . . . JST Matthew]

travels back to Jerusalem, were preceded by the shipbuilding of Hagoth,
circa 55 B.C., whose colonies of immigrants sailed the west sea [Pacific Ocean],
from the narrow neck of land which led into the land northward.  Some appear
to have gotten dispersed, landing as far west as modern day New Zealand,
in the western
Pacific, as indicated by the language similarities of the Maori,
the aboriginal people of New Zealand, of Polynesian-Melanesian descent.
As noted in Theophoric Personal Names in Ancient Hebrew, published in1988
by Jeaneane D. Fowler, the Hebrew prepositional element 't', as also Phoen.;
Palm.; Akk. itti, is defined as with; i.e., God is with us.  Similar to the variations
of the Tinney surname found in A Dictionary of the Maori Language,
where Tenei means this, near, or connected with the speaker; also,
similar to the meaning given for the Cornish word Thynny: we, us.

The Tinneh Stock --This great family includes a large number of North American
tribes, extending, from near the mouth of the Mackenzie, south to the borders
of Mexico. The Apaches and Comanches belong to it, and the family seem to
intersect the continent of North America in a north and south direction, principally
along the flanks of the Rocky Mountains. The tribes of this stock in the north
extend westward nearly to the delta of the Yukon, and reach the coast
at Cook's Inlet and the mouth of the Copper River. Eastward they extend
quite or nearly to the mountains which divide the watershed of Hudson Bay
from that of the Mackenzie and Athabasca. . . . their own national designation
is Tinneh, meaning "people" in the collective sense.

Itzaj Maya - Spanish - English Dictionary, published 1997, by
Charles Andrew Hofling, page 592, shows tin- ISG.A/DUR.
aspecto durativo (primera persona). durative aspect (first-person).
T-in-xok. Estoy leyendo. I am reading . . .
tan-in>tin. Alaska and Its Resources, shows in the East Siberian Tribes,
The English word for: among the Aleutian [Unalaskan] Orarian:  I, is Tinn,
page 548.  Nephi, as the highest holder of the Melchizedek priesthood
authority [known to have been
on the earth in his day], would have been
derelict in his duty, if he had not attended to
the birth of the royal
leader of his Church, the
Messiah Jesus Christ, even Jehovah.
appears to have successfully navigated the
Pacific Ocean,
preached the fullness
of the Gospel concerning the birth of the Messiah,
(manifest by heavenly signs and wonders),
from India to Palestine,
along the ancient Jewish tin distribution route.  Thus, he brought Jewish
wise men in authority from communal outposts, his entourage of followers,
with their precious merchant goods from the East, to Melchizedek
priesthood worship at the feet of the
child Jesus, at home, in Bethlehem.
This trip appears to have been accomplished in one to two years.

The priesthood authority of the wise men and their Jewish heritage
is clearly established within the historical narrative.  Josephus, in his
brief passage concerning Jesus, states that the historical Jesus was
"a wise man", for He was a doer of wonderful works - a teacher of such men
as receive the truth with pleasure.  St. Matthew declares that "When Herod
the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him."
And when he later had gathered "the chief priests and scribes of the people
together", shows that the wise men first went to the highest priesthood
authority within the City of Jerusalem
, as King Herod got the word
second-hand.  Nevertheless, after King Herod had privily [privately]
called the wise men, he sent them to Bethlehem, as legal and lawful
representatives of both the kingly authority and the full authority
of the total
priesthood body, representative of the Hebrew Nation,
residing in full conference in Jerusalem.  "In Bethlehem of Judaea:
for thus it is written by the prophet."

Only a prophet could legally and lawfully represent Messiah
[the prophet Jesus Christ, His Royal Majesty], in Jewish History.
A wise man was one who had the spirit of discernment, a gift
of the spirit requiring Church membership, according to Apostle Paul
in his letter to the Corinthian Saints.  The Proverbs of King Solomon
prove it, as a wise man will hear, and will increase learning; and a man
of understanding shall attain unto wise counsels . . . [for] . . . the fear
of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge.  The discerning of all spirits
was a power inherent in the highest offices of ancient Priesthood Authority,
of which the example of King Melchizedek is given, as Christ was declared
to be a High Priest after that order.  Also, King Solomon had the priesthood,
as he stood before the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and offered up burnt
offerings, and offered peace offerings, and made a feast to all his servants.
This was in response to his dream, a revelation from God,  who gave
King Solomon wisdom and understanding exceeding much,
and largeness of heart, even as the sand that is on the sea shore.

When the wise men saw the star they rejoiced with exceeding great joy,
or were full of the spirit of God. Their commodities appear to have preserved
and sustained the family of Joseph and
Mary during their sojourn in Egypt,
where Jesus was sent, to save Him from King Herod.  The Greek capital
of Egypt was Alexandria, where Jews had settled in large numbers.  Philo,

an eminent Jewish philosopher, lived at Alexandria from 20 B.C. to A.D. 50.
, who had received revelations from God, may have found comfort
with relatives in this center of Jewish religious belief, and may have stayed
in this city containing the largest record library in the world; which the Christ
may have had access to. 
Since King Herod slew all the children that were
in Bethlehem, [after the removal of Jesus to Egypt, and in all the coasts
thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which the Jewish
King Herod had diligently enquired of the wise men], Jesus would have had
time to heal from His circumcision done at eight (8) days,
and his mother Mary from the after birth.

Jesus was approximately, a child aged 1-2 years old, at the time of the visit
of the wise men, as previously, He had been brought to the Jerusalem Temple,
The House of His Eternal Father, to be presented to the Lord, [His physical
and Heavenly Father], after the days of Mary's purification were accomplished.
King Herod died between A.D. 2 and before A.D. 12, when Jesus had his
"bar mitzvah".  [The Story of Masada, Discoveries from the Excavations,
edited by Gila Hurvitz, published 1997, pages 79-80, shows amphorae,
of which one extremely rare element has the destination of the shipment,
dated 19 B.C., regi Herodi Iudaico, "to Herod, King of the Jews."
Wine was imported from Italy and Herod's special wine steward served it
on his eating table.]  Anciently, at age twelve, a male child was ordained
into the Aaronic Priesthood and the office of a Deacon.  When Jesus stated:
"How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father's
business?", implies that He had been ordained to the Aaronic Priesthood
by this time, else He could not be about His Father's business.  But His earthly
mother Mary, kept all these sayings in her heart, for it appears she had not
yet told Him the identity of His real Father
.  The Holy Scripture indicates
she then recognized that God the Father had revealed this fact to Jesus.

Jesus Christ obeyed his earthly parents and grew up with His brethren,
and waxed strong under the jurisdiction of Joseph, in Nazareth, in Galilee.
On the return from Egypt, Joseph had turned aside from going back
to Bethlehem and went instead into the parts of Galilee. It appears thus,
from the record, that some of Mary's relatives were historically located
in the area of Bethlehem, for Mary visited prior to the birth of Jesus,
the house of Zacharias, in a city in the hill country of Juda.  The fact
that Mary was also of  the city of David and the Royal House
King David is implied in the statement: "To be taxed with Mary,
his espoused wife, being great with child."

John G. Gammie and Leo G. Perdue, published in 1990, the book:
The Sage In Israel and The Ancient Near East, noting Jesus Christ
was a Sage.  Christ taught in the synagogues, being the Lord is One Tanna,
the civil representative of Judah & Israel in Time and Universal Judge in Eternity.
The sayings of Jesus Christ concerning destruction of the House of the Lord,
were known within the Abtinas family, as noted next in this document,
by statements of their posterity recorded in The Babylonian Talmud. [See also:
The Holy Temple Revisited, (1993)].  Righteous tannaim were living libraries
of knowledge, having memorized tannaitic statements. They were wells
of living water, as in the Temple Teni priests, even baskets full of books,
centered in the Supreme Sacrifice of the Chosen One of Israel,
the Holy Messiah Jesus Christ.  It is mentioned in The Babylonian Talmud,
Vol. 6, Seder Nashim, (Vol. II), Kethuboth, Chapter XIII, pages 681-682,
that "the house of Abtinas" (a priestly family) [who were in charge]
of the preparation of the incense, received their wages from the Temple funds.

The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 11, Seder Mo'ed, (Vol. III), Yoma, Chapter III,
pages 176-178, mentions "They of the House of Abtinas" would not teach
anything about the preparation of the incense, of which they were expert.
Their smoke ascended [as straight] as a stick.  When the Sages asked
why they, the House of Abtinas, would not teach their art, the reply was
"They knew in our father's house that this House is going to be
and they said: Perhaps an unworthy man will learn [this art]
and will serve an idol therewith. --- And for the following reason was their
memory kept in honour:  Never did a bride of their house go forth perfumed,
and when they married a woman from elsewhere they expressly forbade
her to do so lest people say: From [the preparation of] the incense they
are perfuming themselves.  [They did so] to fulfill the command:
'Ye shall be clear before the Lord and before Israel.' "

The concept of authority, noted in Teena: Mount Sinai, in Arabic, is
further expanded in the Aramaic Teni, origin of the word tanna, to hand
down orally, study or teach, from which the Jewish Tannaim or teachers,
mentioned in the Mishnah or of mishnaic times. According to the
Academic American Encyclopedia (1980), Aramaic is one of the branches
of Central Semitic, and was once the colloquial language of the Near East
after the decline of Akkadian. It was the native tongue of Jesus Christ
and the language of the Jewish Talmud.

The centralized Sanhedrin authority of the exile dispersed Jews
"in the wilderness", directed the reweaving of broken strands of tradition
into codex and commentaries, such as the Mishnah, or evidences--for
future legal reference and consideration. This was the very foundation
of the Talmud or Gemara. This included in conjunctive relationship,
the Seder Olam Rabbah or world history and chronology from Adam until
the destruction of the City of Jerusalem and its academies and centers of
the learned. These were centered in Temple worship, brought to an abrupt
conclusion at the destruction of the Second Temple. This desolation occurred
shortly after the unjust execution of Jesus Christ, the Only Begotten and
Beloved Son, JEHOVAH in the flesh-- of God, the Eternal Father [AHMAN].
When Jesus Christ asked the Father, while on the cross at Calvary,
to forgive the Roman soldiers crucifying Him, "for they know not what they do";
He was acting in His Office and Authority as the true Holy Messiah.
Later, the centurion, and the Roman soldiers that were with him, saw and felt
an earthquake and aftershocks. Then they greatly feared saying:
"Truly this was the Son of God".  This validated the words
of Jesus Christ, as well as the integrity of the Roman soldiers,
who were following military orders and acting in ignorance.

The Father of Jesus Christ, named Ahman, the delightful man
in the
Adamic Language, was directly present at the time of the death
of his Only Begotten Son in the flesh.  His very presence is proven
by the words of Jesus Christ: "El(o)i, El(o)i, lama sabachthani?",
that is, in Aramaic: "My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken me?"
These words King David also wrote at the beginning of Psalm 22. 
In the case of Jesus Christ, who knew all things from the beginning,
it was a cry of admission that all things were now accomplished
and His mission on the earth was ended.  God the Eternal Father
had approved of all the actions of Jesus Christ.  The Father departed
to prepare the Seat of Majesty for His Eternal Son at the glorified Throne
in Heaven.  He left to allow His Son, by His own free agency, to die alone,
to prove to the world that Jesus gave His life independently, as the Son
of God.  "I thirst", said Jesus, was a sign for all mankind.  The reception
of vinegar by Jesus the Christ, was His own individual act of following
explicitly the will of His Father in Heaven, in taking upon Himself freely,
the sins of the world.  The perfect, Righteous Man, He who trusted in God,
was delivered and received: "Father, into Thy hands I commend my spirit."
It was finished: and He bowed His head in honor to His Heavenly Father,
and removed His spirit from His physical body by giving up the ghost,
and died.  The Messiah had fulfilled all the customs and laws
of the Jews and the lesser Sacrificial Law of Moses ended.

Taw, the 22nd and last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, was the mark
set on the forehead of those that bewailed the abominations in Jerusalem,
the sign that defends against the power of evil influences; used also,
as a person's signature in legal documentation, a stamp or brand.
For the early Christians, it was Paul's pressing toward the mark, the prize
of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. The physical marks left on the
resurrected body of Elder Jesus Christ, from his crucifixion; giving His Life
["Ti"] as an Eternal Sacrifice for the sins of all Mankind, his spiritual brothers
and sisters.  Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator of Judea, in A.D. 26-36,
presided over the trial and execution of Jesus, as a just man, against his will.
The limestone block called the Pontius Pilate Stone, has been found
in secondary use in the amphitheater at Caesarea, which contains
the following inscription:   . . . TIBERIEUM/ . . . [PO]NTIUS PILATUS/
. . . [PRAEF]ECTUS IUDA[EAE], provided by the Israel Museum
and the Israel Antiquities Authority. [See: From Text to Tradition,
A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism,
by Lawrence H. Schiffman, published 1991,
page 151, under The Jewish-Christian Schism.]
Ring of Roman Governor Pontius Pilate Who Crucified Jesus Christ
Found in Herodion Site in West Bank [Research Note: Title designation is
incorrect. Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator of Judea, in A.D. 26-36,
presided over the trial and execution of Jesus, as a just man, against his will.
In what way was he a just man? After interrogating Jesus Christ, Pilate declared
to the people: “I find in him no fault at all." . . . And Pilate saith unto them,
Behold the man!]
[Additional Research Note: In the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible,
Pontius Pilate states and commands the Jewish multitude, as
Pilate washed his hands before them, saying: "I am innocent of
the blood of this just person; see that ye do nothing unto him."
This is a direct contradiction of Antiquities, stating that Pilate had
condemned Jesus Christ to the cross, (in The Works of Josephus).
The Jewish multitude violently prevailed, contrary to the specific
direct order command of the Judaean Roman province governor.]

Jesus Christ was a circumcised Jew, rightful heir through His mother's
lineage to the Throne of Royalty of King David.  His Father was AHMAN,
an immortal embodied God who had physical sexual intercourse with His
[Jesus'] biological and eternal mother Mary, sealed to God the Father
in eternal marriage before the act of intercourse, with Mary's physical body
overcome by the power of the Holy Ghost. Paul's counsel to the early
Christian Church not to keep Moses' law concerning circumcision, was
his own decision, according to Mormon doctrine. As quoted: "wherefore,
for this cause the apostle [Paul] wrote unto the church, giving unto them
a commandment, not of the Lord, but of himself, that a believer should
not be united to an unbeliever; except the law of Moses should be done
away among them." (Doctrine and Covenants, Section 74)

The variation in names presented in the New Testament pedigree
of Joseph, the civil husband of Mary, the mortal mother of Jesus Christ,
follows a traditional, historical pattern in Jewish naming practices, especially
in occupied countries.  It is commonly noted in Jewish genealogy sources
that two or more names were used by individual Jews to avoid persecution
and prevent the complete identification by groups outside the family or the
religious circle of friends.  In many instances, one or more given name(s)
was/were used for secular or civil purposes and one for internal synagogue
or religious use.  Without recourse to original documents in the era described,
it is not possible to verify the actual identity of persons, with differing names,
presented on the pedigree, in the same time period in the line of descent.

Royalty marriage practices over time show limited exclusive connections
to similar dynastic families.  The presentation of the Royal Davidic pedigree
of Joseph, within the framework of the Jewish patriarchal society, suggests
the Davidic ancestry of Mary.  Some consideration also should be given
to the variations in the pedigrees presented for Jesus Christ, as possible
differences created by one of the pedigrees following the biological
matriarchal lineage of Mary, the temporal mother of Jesus Christ;
the other, being the patriarchal lineage of the civil husband Joseph,
the step-father
of Jesus Christ, the Royal House of King David Messiah.
The Works of Josephus
, Complete & Unabridged, New Updated Edition,
published 1987, The Antiquities of the Jews, Book 18, Chapter 3, page 480,
verse 3. (63), states:  "Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man,
if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works -
a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure.  He drew over to him
both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles.  He was [the] Christ; (64)
and when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had
condemned him to the cross {b} A.D. 33. April 3., those that loved him at the
first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day {c}
April 5., as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other
wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians,
so named from him, are not extinct at this day."

Adam Rutherford, F.R.G.S., A.M. Inst.T., 4th edition,
Anglo-Saxon Israel or Israel-Britain (London: By the Author, 1939),
Chapter XIII, "The Introduction of Christianity into Britain", mentions
on page 185 of said chapter, that "an ancient MS. in the Vatican telling of
Joseph of Arimathaea . . . landing at Marseilles in A.D. 35" "There exists
a number of entirely independent traditions both in France and Britain that
Joseph of Arimathaea was a well-to-do tin merchant." . . . Cornwall tin
"is mentioned by such classical writers as Herodotus, Homer, Pytheas
and Polybius, whilst Diodorus Siculus gives the details of the trade route."
In the book: Glastonbury-Her Saints, the story is still told that "at Marazion
in Cornwall [England], of St. Joseph [Joseph of Arimathaea],
coming there to trade with tin miners."

The House of God in the great Monastery of Glastonbury, called
the Secret of the Lord, is recorded in Doomsday Book (A.D. 1088).
Traditionally, the twelve Hides of Land of the Church of Glastonbury,
descend from an original grant given Joseph of Arimathaea,
by King Arviragus, in the XXXI year after the Passion of Christ,
according to the old Glastonbury Chronicle.
[See also: "The Royal Line", a pedigree chart by Albert F. Schmuhl.
The Early History of Glastonbury
, an edition, translation and study
(Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: The Boydell Press, 1981), by John Scott.
The Glastonbury Legends, (London: The Cresset Press, 1967),
by R. F. Treharne.]

Christianity was carried west from Jerusalem through contact with Jewish
communities, notably at Rome & some of the larger towns in North Africa.
The Mormon or LDS record called: Journal of Discourses, mentions how
the apostle Heber C. Kimball, related his conversation with the prophet
Joseph Smith, Jr. It indicates one of the ancient apostles of Jesus Christ
dedicated the land of Britain for missionary work [There is a legend of the
Apostle Peter coming to Britain]. LDS Apostle Kimball states his desire
to take off his hat and shoes, a feeling from walking on sacred ground
in the county of Lancashire, northern section of the county, in the district
of Clitheroe. By Mormon or LDS doctrine, only an apostle would have
the keys (authority) to open up a country by dedicating the land for the
preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ. [See also, Heber C. Kimball,
Mormon Patriarch and Pioneer, (1981), by Stanley B. Kimball]

Pliny mentions Albiones as a people living on the Biscayan Shore of Spain.
Anciently, the earliest name of England was Albion. In A.D. 60, Albinus
was a procurator in Jewish history, in Palestine.  Jews were scattered to
German lands after A.D. 70. Flavius Josephus (Joseph ben Matthias),
Jewish historian and general [A.D. 37 to circa 100] stated in his time that
there are no people in the world who have not some Jews among them.
(Josephus, Bell. Jud., II, 16, 4: VII, 3, 3.)  Rabbi Meir [who lived in the
2nd century A.D.], in Midrash Leviticus Rabbah, 69, mentions that Spain
and Gaul was the land of imprisonment. This designation comes from the
specifications of the borders of Israel made anciently by the Prophet Moses,
as recorded in Numbers, Chapter 34.  The Lord also commanded Moses,
living circa 1603-1483 B.C., that in the purification of the soldiers, it was
permissible to keep gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead.

Josephus mentions in Ant. Jud., (XVII, 13, 2; II, 7, 3 and XVIII, 7, 2),
the banishment of Archelaus to Vienne in Gaul in the year A.D. 6, and
Herod Antipas to Lyons in the year A.D. 39. The Babylonian Talmud,
Vol. 8, Seder Nashim, Chapter I, Gittin, pages 1 and 26-27, mentions
foreign parts was defined Lit[erally] as the 'province of the sea',
a name given to all countries outside of Palestine and Babylonia. A review
is made of how to reckon Eretz Israel, concerning the case of a boat in
the open sea.  [For determining the status of] the islands in the sea, . . .
And for the western border, ye shall have the Great Sea for a border;
this shall be your west border (Numbers 34:6).  [To determine the status
of] the islands on the border line, {4} (i.e., due west of the coast beyond
the southern and northern extremities of the border of Palestine), we
imagine a line drawn [due west] from Kapluria {5} (at the northern
extremity of Mount Hor), to the [Atlantic] Ocean, and another from the
Brook of Egypt to the [Atlantic] Ocean.  All within these lines belong to
Eretz Israel and all outside to foreign parts, the 'province of the sea'.

Again, Hadrian (Sciptores Historiae Augustae, Quadrigae Tyrannorum 8.3)
remarks that there is no chief of a synagogue who is not an astrologer
(mathematicus), soothsayer (haruspex), or anointer (aliptes). Moreover,
in the middle of the second century, Vettius Valens, in his astrological work,
Anthologiae (2.28,29), refers to Abraham as a most wonderful astrological
authority.  Vitruvius (I.3-10) enjoined first century A.D. architects to study
astronomy so that they might 'learn the direction of points, the orders of the
heavens, the equinoxes and solstices and the movement of the stars'
and 'to understand how clocks and sundials work':  This was information
that Seamen needed to know.  The influence of the moon's phases
on the tides was also known, as were the Mediterranean sea conditions
to be expected from certain weather sequences; and the directions
from which prevailing winds blew were used as reference bearings. [See:
Cross-Channel Seamanship and Navigation in the Late First Millennium B.C.,
by Sean McGrail, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 2, No. 3,
November 1983, page 308.]

Pamela Fletcher Jones states in The Jews of Britain that there
were Jews living in Britain as early as Roman times. She notes a coin
of Herod Agrippa I was found at Bingley Moor in the West Riding
of Yorkshire, struck 42-43 A.D. A coin was found at Melandra Castle
in Derbyshire dated 66-72 A.D.; a coin was found at the old G. P. O.
site in London's St. Martin's-le-Grand, struck to celebrate a victory of
Bar Kokhba. There is also the discovery of a brick made by the Romans,
found during excavations in Mark Lane, London, circa A.D. 1650. The brick,
which was the keystone of an arched vault full of burnt corn, bore on one side
a raised representation of Samson driving the foxes into a field of corn.
[The Biblical Samson, 12th Judge of Israel, "went and caught 300 foxes,
and took firebrands, and turned tail to tail, and put a firebrand in the midst
between two tails  . . . let them go into the standing corn of the Philistines"
and burnt up their crops.]  There is also mention made of Titinivs Pines
in The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 55, published 1965, article
concerning ROMAN BRITAIN in A.D. 1964, section II. Inscriptions
(By R. P. Wright), pages 220-221, at Godmanstone Church,
4 miles NNW. of Dorchester, in England.  It is noted that Pines
appears to be a variant of Pinnes, a leader in the Pannonian revolt
of A.D. 6. "{3} For an elaborate dedication it is highly probable
that the dedicator was a centurion."

As noted in the controversy between Apion and Josephus, the origin
and development of Jewish Family Names or inherited family surnames
is not a recent development, but a lost heritage in some branches of the
Hebrew Nation scattered abroad in the Diaspora.  Jews appear historically
to have assimilated with the people they resided with, from the Tini thar,
or family priestly tribe of Asia, to the ancient Etruscan/Roman City lifestyle.
Apion objects to the Jews being called citizens of Alexandria.  In reply,
Josephus states: "Their taking the name of Alexandrians is only in
accordance with the general practice of colonists
; and if the principle
is wrong, Apion ought to abstain from calling himself an Alexandrian,
because he was born in the heart of Egypt. This would be consistent
with the Roman law, which forbids Egyptians to enjoy the privileges
of any Roman city. Ptolemy, in conferring citizenship upon the Jews,
acted in the same way as Alexander, . . . " "Agrippa Palaestinus"
. . . and his brother Herod are mentioned, indicating actual official
territorial surname identification usage.

The Jewish Avtinus/Abtinas family was part of the Jerusalem Temple priesthood.
The part Jewish Titinius [Tinius] family had connections in Rome and Jerusalem.
Both the Atinii and Titinii families are part of the Index of the Pompeian gentes,
listed in Ordo Populusque Pompeianus, Polity and Society in Roman Pompeii,
by Paavo Castren, published in Rome, 1975, Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae,
Vol. VIII, page 140 [# 52.], page 230 [# 414], page 259.  Pompeii was an ancient
city of Campania, 14 miles southeast of Naples, Italy. It was destroyed by an
eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.  The Atinii were attested in Pompeii
already in the Sabellian period.  There appears to be an early immigration from
Latium and Campanian traders settled on Delos with contacts to trading centers
of the Hellenistic East.  The Titinii family is noted on Delos.  The Titinii gentes
is frequently documented in rep.  Capua  (I{2} 683-84 B.C., 2570, 2618-2620,
2759-2763),  Luna  (I{2} 2093-2094),  on  Delos  (BCH  36  (1912), 85;
HATZFELD, passim and 85) and often in Minturnae (cf. Val. Max. 8, 2, 3;
MUNZER, RAP, 322).  Titinia Saturnina is listed as # 82, page 65, in Case Ed
Abitanti Di Pompei, published 1965, with note {3} Con Saturnina si conosce
della famiglia Titinia un A. Titinius Princeps, il cui nome, tracciato forse sempre
dalla stessa mano, era graffito quattro volte sopra le pareti della Basilica [1807,
1867, 1932 e 1945] e un M. Titinus, [M. Titinius, cinaedus, 8531, in Ordo
Populusque Pompeianus, page 230, # 414], (N.S., 1939, p. 243, n. 16).  Also,
page 470, # 92, TITINAE SATVRNI.

In the time frame of Horace, born 65 B.C., mention is made of "proselytizing
Jews" who actively engaged in making converts to diminish the influence of
those who oppressed them, contrary to current practice and tradition. Tacitus,
in Annals II , [85.4], and others, record that measures were taken for sweeping
away the religious ceremonies of the Egyptians and Jews, by the Roman
Senate, in A.D. 19. Forced into service in the army, to serve in Sardinia,
were "4,000 descendants of freedmen", old enough to carry arms,
[aged between 18 years and 45 years].  They had been contaminated
with superstition and others, the rest, were to leave Italy. Philo Judaeus,
a Hellenizing Jewish philosopher of Alexandria, indicates that by the time
of the reign of Gaius (A.D. 37-41), Jews had become "freedman",
from their earlier arrival as slaves at Rome, indicating the Jewish community
was still functioning.  Claudius did not drive them away [circa A.D. 50],
though he would not permit those who lived according to their own laws to
hold meetings.  Dion Cassius, born about A.D. 155, says Rome became
so crowded with Jews, that it was difficult to expel them without tumult.  [See:
Notices of the Jews and Their Country by The Classic Writers of Antiquity,
being a collection of statements and opinions from the works of Greek
and Latin heathen authors previous to A.D. 500,
by John Gill, who fl., 1848-1865.]

The Titinius family is further mentioned by A. N. Sherwin-White,
Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, in The Letters of Pliny
["the Younger", A.D. 62-113], (Oxford, England: The Clarendon Press,
1966), pp. 124-126, 460, 645, with data from 124-126 concerning:
17. To Cornelius Titianus. . .
Octavius Titinius Capito is known from ILS 1448, found at Rome.
After serving in Domitian's [A.D. 51-96] wars with distinction, he became
secretary of the combined departments of ab epistulis and a patrimonio.
These were apparently combined together--and continued to hold the former
secretariat under Nerva and in the first years of Trajan [A.D. 52-117], until
he was promoted to be praefectus vigilum in late A.D. 101 or 102, before
Trajan received the title Dacicus. He is the first of the equestrians known
regularly to have held one of the great secretariats formerly found in the
hands of imperial freedmen. It is possible that his literary aptitudes, which
Pliny reckoned rare among the army trained procurators of this period,
led to this appointment . . . The documents which the ab epistulis handled
were like those of the prefect of Saturn . . . reports and petitions
of governors and officials. Octavius Titinius Capito received the award
of ornamenta praetoria from the Senate; he specialized in historical studies
and Pliny mentions his exitus illustrium virorum.

Sir Ronald Syme, the author of Roman Papers,
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979), Vol. I, p. 379; he notes:
"(2) Dacia by 120, cf. CIL xvi 68; Judaea under Q. Tineius Rufus,
the governor when the rebellion broke out in A.D. 132
(E. Groag, RE vi A, coll. 1376 ff.), for Tineius' consulship
is now certified in 127 (FO xxvi [= Incr. It. xiii I, 204-5])."
Also, Vol. I, page 546:
"When the [Jewish] insurrection broke out in A.D. 131 or 132,
the governor [of Judea] was Q. Tineius Rufus: the Fasti Ostienses
show him consul suffect in 127.(4). Furthermore, a milestone indicates
that Caparcoma, the camp of the second legion, was already in existence
in 130.(5) Hadrian was in those parts in 129 and 130.(6)
He abolished the name of Jerusalem, refounding the place as a colony,
Aelia Capitolina. That helped to provoke the rebellion. (7)"
Also, Vol. V, (1988), page 594:
Q. Tineius Rufus (suff. 127).  He reached his consulship from Thrace,
attested there by a milestone of 124 (CIL iii 14207); and he
was governing Judaea when the great rebellion broke out in 132.
[See also: Arthur E. Gordon, IV Album of Dated Latin Inscriptions
(INDEXES), (Berkeley, California: UC Press, 1965), p. 85, lists:
Q. Tineius Rufus 232, 239 (line 8), 241

Quintus Tineius Rufus (consul 127) is noted in various Jewish sources.
One such source is the book "Lamentations", of The Midrash. The recital
of the Book of Lamentations forms part of the ritual of the Synagogue
on the 9th of Ab [Av]. It is the 11th month of the civil year or the 5th month
of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar, usually coinciding
with August, the anniversary of the destruction of the first and second Temple.
R. Akiba was standing trial before Tineius Rufus, and Joshua the grits
dealer was standing in prayer with him. Actual conversation is mentioned
in Midrash Rabbah, in Ten Volumes, section Genesis (Bereshith),
XI. 5, pages 83-4, wherein Tinneus Rufus asked R. Akiba:
"Why does this day (the Sabbath) differ from other days?"
"Why does one man differ from other men?" he retorted.
"What did I ask you and what did you answer me?" inquired he.
"You asked me," he replied, "why does the Sabbath differ from all other days,"
and I answered you, "Why does Rufus differ from other men?"
"Because the emperor desired to honour him," said he.
"Then this day, too, the Holy One wished to honour."

From The Babylonian Talmud, Translated into English with Notes,
Glossary and Indices under the Editorship of Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein, B.A.,
Ph. D., D. Litt., published various years, The Soncino Press, London,
[England], Vol. 4, Abodah Zarah, page 105, mention is made of "when
R. Akiba saw the wife of Rufus, he spat, then laughed, and then wept."
"Spat", because of her originating only from a putrefying drop, "laughed"
because he foresaw that she would become a proselyte and that he would
take her to wife, "wept", that such beauty should (ultimately) decay in the
dust. R. Akiba, a most "orthodox" old Jew in his day, indicates by these
statements that the wife of Tineius Rufus must have been from Jewish
origins. Else, R. Akiba would have planned to marry a Gentile, which
is a contradiction, even as a convert, of an "orthodox" viewpoint
of female beauty.  The "orthodox" viewpoint holds that one
must not admire the beauty of the heathen.

His statements, irrespective of his high standing before the Jewish religious
community, placed him in civil contempt, the same category as Haman,
who fell upon the bed of Queen Esther. At that time, Queen Esther's
husband, King Ahasuerus said: "Will he force the Queen also before
me in the house?" So Haman was hanged on the gallows in his day.
The Encyclopedia of Judaism, (1989), notes R. Akiva was arrested
and imprisoned, condemned to death and executed by the Romans
tearing his flesh with iron "combs" at Caesarea.
A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ
by Emil Schurer, D.D., M.A., also mentions Tineius Rufus.
Q. Tineius Rufus
, consul under Commodus, is referred to on
several inscriptions. In the Chronicle of Eusebius  he is called
Tineius Rufus and in Latin, in St. Jerome, "tenente provinciam
Tinnio Rufo . . ."  [See Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism,
Vol. II, pages 392-405, for extensive documented notes.]

Tineius Rufus was governor of Judea when a Jewish rebellion broke out.
Large bodies of troops from other provinces, as far away as Britain,
were called in to strengthen the resident garrison, with Rufus maintaining
supreme command. "Rufus the Tyrant" appears to be the chief enemy
of the Jews during this time period. In the Mishna it is related that Jerusalem
was run over on the 9th of Ab by the plough. In The Babylonian Talmud
and by St. Jerome, this deed is ascribed to Rufus, i.e., the plough to pass
over the site of the Temple, "ad quam multa millia confugerant Judaeorum;
aratum templum in ignominiam gentis oppressae a T. Annio (l. Tinnio) Rufo."

The Lord Jesus Christ predicted this terrible event, as recorded
in St. Luke, Chapter 21: 5-6: And as some spake of the temple how
it was adorned with goodly stones and gifts, He [Jesus Christ] said,
"As for these things which ye behold, the days will come, in the
which there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not
be thrown down."  Q. TINEIUS RUFUS fulfilled the words of Jesus Christ.

Yigael Yadin wrote in 1971, concerning Bar-Kokhba, the legendary hero
of the last Jewish Revolt against Imperial Rome. Glassware dug up of similar
technique from the Roman Empire was found to match a fragment of a rim
found at Richborough, Kent, England. Thus, one bowl in a remote cave in
the Judaean Desert matches another bowl located in Kent, England.
These bowls were apparently manufactured together and distributed by the
Roman common market. Glass manufactories existed in Rome, on the further
side of the Tiber River, where poor Jews were historically known to frequent.
Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora, from Alexander to Trajan, by
John M. G. Barclay, published 1996, page 290, notes that Jews in Rome
became securely established and that by Augustus' time they were settled
predominantly on the right bank of the Tiber, an area that is now called the
Trastevere.  The catacomb of Monteverde being the oldest so far discovered,
was in the Trastevere district on the Via Portuensis, an area of poor residences.

International industrial, trade and financial dealings were the foundation of the
creation of rich urban families.  Geza Alfoldy, professor of Ancient History,
Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, published in 1974, a book concerning Noricum.
Noricum was a Roman district south of the Danube River, a region of merchant
activity well known to the Mediterranean world by the first century B.C.  Pioneers
were drawn deep into the rough mountain-lands by the presence of metal ores in
East Tirol.  Enterprising Norican traders appear to have operated in northern Italy,
Dalmatia, the Rhineland, and even in Africa, into the second half of the second
century A.D., as noted by CIL VIII 4822 (Thubursicu Numidarum):  [TITINIA]:
Titinia Primula origine Norica.  Numidia was a north African region
on the Mediterranean coast, south west of Italy.

Actual linkage of the Tinney family surname and variations group or gens
of Rome to the British Isles comes from the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum,
vii, as quoted in Vol. 19, Fourth Series:
Society of Antiquaries Newcastle-upon Tyne,
in "The Roman Fort on Hadrian's Wall at Benwell".
From inscribed stones: "The aristocrat Tineius Longus, who became quaestor
designate while resident commander at Benwell, will not have been ashamed
of his quarters on Hadrian's Wall." His residence was the commandant's
house, or praetorium, very large, approximately 120 feet by 160 feet in area,
comfortable, well heated rooms of a large and comfortable house; begun--
July A.D. 122. It was erected under Hadrian, during the governor ship of
Platorius Nepos. In the Temple of Antenociticus, a youthful god with wild
barbaric hair and a torque about his neck; in the south-east corner, was an
altar inscribed to Antenociticus, by Tineius Longus, prefect of cavalry under
the consular governor Ulpius Marcellus; the altar had been painted red.

"To the God Anociticus, dedicated by Tineius Longus, who, by the decision
of our best and greatest Emperors, has while serving as Praefect of Cavalry,
under Ulpius Marcellus, Consular Governor, been awarded the Broad Stripe
and appointed Quaestor." The latus clavus or 'laticlave' was the broad purple
on the white tunic, which was the distinguishing mark of a senator,
noted in The Romans in Britain, an anthology of Inscriptions, by A. R. Burn,
Reader in Ancient History in the University of Glasgow. For full coverage
and drawings of the Temple of Antenociticus,
[See: The Buildings of Roman Britain, by Guy de la Bedoyere,
published 1991, in London.] The temple appears to be a home-made style,
indicating the god Antenociticus was a surname family deity.

According to Cassell's New Latin Dictionary, Quaestors, of which
Tineius Longus became quaestor designate while resident commander
at Benwell, were magistrates in Rome. Of these, some tried criminal cases
in the courts, or prosecuted at such trials; others were in charge of the state
treasury; others accompanied consuls and praetors on military expeditions
and to provincial commands, and acted as paymasters. The number of
quaestors, originally two, was in the end raised to eighteen.
Tinnio -ire, a Latin word, means to ring, tinkle; also,
Transf., (1) to talk or sing shrilly;
              (2) to make to chink; hence to pay money.
Teneo, Transf., a, to hold in the mind, to understand, and
Intransit., to keep on, persevere; i.e., to endure to the end, etc.
[See also the Hebrew word: teru{c} a, clanging of cymbals, shouting.]

Sir Ronald Syme, the author of Roman Papers,  states, from Vol. III, page 437:
It is worth noting that no adlection inter patricios can so far be firmly
attributed to Hadrian. (69) . . . [Except for P. Coelius Balbinus (cos. 137),
cf. ILS 1063]. To the group admitted by Pius one may add
Q. Tineius Sacerdos (cos. 158), cf. IGR iii 808 (Side); and a son became
salius Palatinus in 170 (CIL vi 1978).
[See also: Arthur E. Gordon, IV Album of Dated Latin Inscriptions
(INDEXES), (Berkeley, California: UC Press, 1965), p. 85, lists:
(Q.) Tineius Sacerdos (cos. II, A.D. 219) 277
Q. Tineius Sacerdos (Clemens) (cos. A.D. 158) 220, 222, 232]
Benjamin Isaac of Churchill College, Cambridge, England,
in his selected papers, published in 1998 as:
The Near East Under Roman Rule, indicates that in A.D. 195,
there are at least 17 centurions of X Fret. in charge of construction works
at an aqueduct near Jerusalem, in Israel.  Of the legions in Judaea
the VI Ferr. supported Severus and X Fret. his competitor Niger.
Apparently, it is stated, Severus trusted the legionaries more as masons
than as combatants in Mesopotamia.  It is noted under footnote {12},
that the consul mentioned in the inscription should be Q. Tineius Clemens,
ordinarius in A.D. 195.  This information comes from the chapter
concerning milestones set up in Judaea, reflecting the construction
of roads in accordance with Roman standards.

Tertullian [Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus] in Adversus
Iudaeos, mentions Christians in Britain in or about A.D. 200; also, Origen
[Christian teacher and theologian, born in Alexandria (circa A.D. 185-254)]
mentions them at a later date. It is a known historical fact that Samaritan
cavalrymen [from ancient Palestine (now the State of Israel)], 2nd to 4th
century, settled in the Ribchester district of Lancashire, England
["Were there Jews in Roman Britain?" by Applebaum]. From The Book of
Girl's Names, Christine is stated as the most common name, along with
Christina, derived from CHRIST. The first record of the name dates from
the 3rd century, when St. Christin lived, a Roman noblewoman; she being
martyred circa A.D. 295. Pet forms of the name were taken from both halves
of it--Chris or Chrissie and Teenie and Tina. Christian plate has been
found within the small town at Chesterton, [England], dated to the 3rd
century A.D., as discussed fully in The Water Newton Early Christian Silver,
by K. S. Painter, (1977).

There is also information found in a work by the late R. G. Collingwood and
R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions of Britain, (Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1965), page 168, CHESTER, #505. Base from a tombstone, 26 x 16 x 26
in (1/8), with right margin chiseled away and lower edge damaged.
The inscribed panel is supported on the left by a figure facing inwards
dressed in cloak, tunic, and Phrygian cap. On the right there was probably
a corresponding figure, now broken off. Found in 1887 in the North Wall
(east part). It is now in the Grosvenor Museum.  Drawn by Baty, 1923.
EE vii 902. Huebner, CASJ{2} iii (1890) 145. Haverfield. AJ
xlvii (1890) 250. Cat. (1900) no. 50; (1955) no. 50 pl. XVI.
D[is] M[anibus] / Titinius Felix b[eneficiarius] / leg[ati]
Leg[ionis] XX V[aleriae] V[ictricis] mil[itauit] an[nos] /
Co / buyx et heres / [ . . .
"To the departed spirits, Titinius Felix, beneficarius
of the legate of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix,
served 22 (?) years, lived 45 years. His wife and heiress, Julia Similina,
[set this up]."
3. ISG Mommsen (from squeeze) EE vii; BRIX(IA)? Hueb.;
LEG(?) F. H.; LEG Baty, R. P. W.
The fact that the wife of this serving soldier is expressly mentioned
on the inscription strongly suggests an A.D. third century date.
The absence of praenomen points in the same direction.
For beneficiarius see Index 6

From Volume I, Europe, P. Jean-Baptiste Frey, C.S.SP.,
Corpus of Jewish Inscriptions,
Jewish Inscriptions from the Third Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A. D.,
(New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1975), #530 on pp. 390-391, is:
530. -- Fragments d'un ou de plusieurs edits de prefets de la ville de Rome,
du IV{e} siecle, par lesquels certaines personnes sont privces du droit de
percevoir des distributions gratuites de ble, pour avoir quitte la ville ou
abandonne le metier qui leur avait valu ces gratifications.
Les noms sont repartis par quartiers. Parmi eux il y a aussi des chretiens.
La liste commence par la partie meridonale de la ville. Les Juifs dont il est
question semblent avoir habite le Celius ou la Subure . . . ;
DIEHL, Inscr. lat. christ. vet., I. p. 128, n. 672
(F Sabbatius; H Felix Tineosus Iudaeus; N Creticus Iudeus).
Sur les distributions faites aux Juifs, cf. Juster, II, p. 236-238.
From Corpvs Inscriptionvm Latinarvm, consilio et avctoritate,
Academiae Scientiarvm, Rei Pvblicae Democraticae Germanicae, Editvm,
Volvminis Sexti Pars Sexta, Fascicvlvs Secvndvs, Gvaltervs de Grvyter
et Socii . Berolini . Novi Eboraci, MCMLXXX, P. 343, Under COGNOMINA
Tineosus 31893 e s (Iudaeus) vir. Tinia [3537]; Titiana, etc.

C. Th., XVI, 8, 3, 4, shows evidence for the existence of the Jews within
the borders of Gaul in the year A.D. 321 as per the Theodosian Code.
Shimon Applebaum wrote, in Judaea in Hellenistic and Roman Times,
that excavations and air photographs have shown that in Britain typical
Celtic field systems remained under cultivation till the end of the 4th
century A.D. This validates a civil administration beneficial to the
continuation of Jewish communal autonomy in that area of Roman Empire
jurisdiction, a safe haven over time for displaced and ravaged merchant
Jews. An Apis Bronze bull, transported from Egypt to Cornwall in Roman
days, used in connection with the cult of Isis, has been found in St. Just-
in-Penwith, Cornwall, England.  Circa A.D. 310, the prefect of Egypt was
Titinnivs Clodianvs, as recorded on page 217
of The Prosopography of The Later Roman Empire,
by A. H. M. Jones, LL.D., D.D., Vol. I, A.D. 260 to A.D. 395, published 1971.
Vienna papyrus
15. 324a (unpublished, see Ant. Class. xx (1951),
417, Ann. Inst. Phil. Hist. Or. xi (1951), 193), Hermopolis.

Ogham was the earliest form of writing in Irish in which the Latin alphabet is
adapted to a series of twenty 'letters' of straight lines and notches carved on
the edge of a piece of stone or wood, as so noted in the Dictionary of Celtic
Mythology, by James MacKillop, published 1998 by Oxford University Press.
Ogham inscriptions date primarily from the 4th to 8th centuries A.D. and are
found mainly on standing stones.  Ogham inscriptions are scattered throughout
Ireland, Great Britain, the Isle of Man, with (5) five in Cornwall, about (30) thirty
in Scotland and more than (40) forty in Wales.  South Wales was an area
of extensive settlement from southern Ireland.  In Wales, ogham inscriptions
have both Irish and Brythonic-Latin adjacent inscriptions.  Each ogham letter
was named for a different tree. T.  = The twentieth letter of the modern
English alphabet is represented by tinne [Ir., holly] in the ogham
of early Ireland.  "T" appears as three straight lines: "lll"
above the
foundation-line: _________ [druim]. Holly of the Old World
often had bright-
red berries and glossy, evergreen leaves
with spiny margins, used traditionally for Christmas decoration.

The Morris Loeb Series, by Harry J. Leon, The Jews of Ancient Rome,
published in 1960, pp. 326-327, shows  the Etruscan god Tinia in the Jewish
Latin Roman family compound word form: Titinia.  In the Jewish Monteverde
catacomb, carved on marble and preserved in the Sala Giudaica
of the Lateran Museum, is found the inscription of the Roman Hebrew:
Here lies Titinia Anna, who [having] lived a good life with her
husband for 15 years 4 months. Priscianus [had this] made.
(#411.) . . . This white marble plaque was inscribed and painted red,
with serifs; found 18 Nov 1904 under debris in Grotto V.  The catacomb
was apparently in use in the 1st century A.D., mainly used in the 2nd
and 3rd centuries, with end of use dated to the 4th century A.D.

[Research Note:  The name Priscianus is mentioned variously
in Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism.  One Priscianus
was a sixth century Neoplatonic philosopher who left Athens for the court
of Persia in the company of Damascius.  In Vol. II, page 598-599, # 504,
is a scil. to Priscianus.  The letter is addressed by Libanius to this
Priscianus, who occupied various posts in the administration and served
at that time as consularis Palaestinae, the letter dated A.D. 364.
The letter refers to disturbances in the Jewish community, of whom Priscianus,
as governor of Palaestina, "had considerable influence".]

The Roman Inscriptions of Britain, also mention on page 199,
RIBCHESTER, #593. Building-stone, 12 x 9.5 in. (1/8),
found before 1821 at Ribchester and bequeathed by Whitaker
to St. John's College, Cambridge, where it now is. Drawn by R. G. C., 1927.
CIL vii 228. Watkin Lancs. 130 with fig. Hopkinson
Ribchester (ed. 3, Atkinson) 28 no. 9
coh(ortis) X / c(enturia) Titiana / o(peris) p(edes) / XXVII
'From the tenth cohort the century of Titius (built) 27 feet of the work.'
3. O(PVS) P(EDVM) Hueb.; O(PERIS) P(EDES) Atkinson.
The adjectival form Titiana should imply that there was a vacancy
in the command of this century till recently filled by the centurion
Titius [Birley CW{2} li (1951) 71].  But Titiana could also be derived
from Titianus. In this case  The centurion Titianus cited on the leaden tag
at Chester [JR xxi (1941) 250 no. 12] may well be identical.

Titianus is mentioned numerous times
in The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, by Timothy D. Barnes,
published 1982 by Harvard University Press.
T. Flavius Postumius Titianus II, listed on page 99, #301, . . .
praefectus urbi [Prefect of the City of Rome] from 12 Feb A.D. 305 to 19 Mar 306;
Titianus, circa A.D. 316, praeses Cappadociae;
Fabius Titianus, listed on page 109, #337, . . .
praefectus urbi [Prefect of the City of Rome] from 25 Oct A.D. 339 to 25 Feb 341
and from 27 Feb A.D. 350 to 01 Mar 351 . . .
Celsinus Titianus is listed as vicarius of Africa in A.D. 380,
a governorship which fell within the range of senators,
as noted in Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court, A.D. 364 - 425,
by John Matthews, published 1975.

The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, by J. R. Martindale,
published 1980, Vol. II, A.D. 395-527, page 1122, mentions:
Titianvs 2, A.D. 398, in office in Sicily, whence
Symmachus' agent Euscius reported favourably on his conduct.
Also, Titianus 3, in A.D. 400.  Titianus and Helpidius 3,
having completed their legal training, were commended by Symmachus
to the CSL  Limenius as suitable for judicial work. Praefectus urbi
Q. Aurelius Symmachus, of the Senatorial class,
was the brother of the above mentioned Celsinus Titianus.

An ingot of tin from Carnanton, St. Mawgan in Pydar, Cornwall, England,
has been found with a worn Roman Imperial inscription, of the 4th century
time period. A Jewish lamp with menorah has been found in Bedfordshire,
England, approximately dated the 4th century A.D.  St. Jerome recorded
that by the 4th century A.D. Jews resided in Britain in dignity as well as
in Gaul and elsewhere. The commentary of  St. Jerome, written between
A.D. 408-410, In Isaiam, LXVI, 20 (PL. XXIV, 672), states that: the Jews
believe that at the time of the Messiah, Jews of Senatorial rank
will come from Spain, Gaul and Britain . . . "de Britannis"
Claudius Claudianus, Latin poet, fl. A.D. 4th-5th century,
mentions Jews as coming westward to trade.
Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism
, Vol. II,
From Tacitus to Simplicius, pages 657-659, # 541, makes mention
of Jewish curtain painters, with reference to "all the vain imaginings of India
depicted on Jewish curtains," dated circa 400 A.D.  Connection is thereby
suggested  to merchant activities of the Jews connected to tin trade.  Tin was
noted historically to have been transported from Cornwall and western England
to the remote provinces of India, via the Mediterranean region.

English tin was the purest and most abundant in Europe, as noted
on p. 736 of Medieval England, An Encyclopedia, published in 1998;
editors Paul E. Szarmach, M. Teresa Tavormina & Joel T. Rosenthal.
From the middle of the 3rd century (when production collapsed in
northern Spain) until the middle of the 13th century (when deposits in
Bohemia and Saxony began to be exploited) Devon & Cornwall [counties
in southwest England] possessed a virtual monopoly of European tin
production.  Many of the works were substantial, with up to 50 laborers
(often employed by wealthy tin merchants), and the number of tinners
in Cornwall and Devon must have reached 6,000 to 8,000 (including a
large proportion of women and children) when production was booming.
Christopher A. Snyder gives many references to tin in his book called:
An Age of Tyrants, Britain and the Britons, A. D. 400 - 600.  Slight traces
of metalworking found at Tintagel, in Cornwall, support the view that
Cornish tin was traded for imports, as shown by the large finds of sherds
of imported amphoras that can be traced to areas all over the the eastern
Mediterranean.  That it remained a sought after commodity in the post-
Roman world is affirmed by the account, in the sixth century Leontius's
Life of St. John the Almsgiver, of the Byzantine ship returning from
Britain loaded with tin.  Also, a short Greek treatise on alchemy
by Stephanos of Alexandria (fl. A. D. 610-641), lists:
"the Celtic nard, the Atlantic Sea, the Brettanic metal."

(No)nivs Tineivs Tarrvt(enivs) Atticvs -4, c.v., M IV,
was a Roman Senator and a pagan, as noted on page 123
of The Prosopography of The Later Roman Empire,
by A. H. M. Jones, LL.D., D.D., Vol. I, A.D. 260 to A.D. 395, published 1971.
nio Tineio Tarrut/enio Attico
c.m.v/q.k., praetori tutelario/xvviro/ s.f.,
died aged 28; husband of . . . a Maxima 2 (c.f.) xiv 3517 near Tibur.
Presumably the father of Nonius Atticus Maximus-34, and Nonia Maxima-5.
See stemma 19, page 1141, Family of Nonius Atticus Maximus-34,
listed as (PPO 384).  Nonia Maxima-5, is listed on page 572 as the wife
of Avianius Vindicianus-4, xv 7399 two fistulae from an aqueduct near the Tiber.
Presumably related to Nonius Atticus Maximus-34, perhaps sister.
Nonius Atticus Maximus
-34, is listed on pages 586-587,
PPO (Italiae) 384, cos 397.  This is dated a. [A.D.] 384 March 13 CTh xiii i.
12{a} dat. Med., with additional mention of CONSVL posterior a. [A.D.] 397
with Fl. Caesarius-6.  Presumably, he is the listed son
of Nonius Tineius Tarrutenius Atticus-4 and . . . a Maxima-2;
perhaps brother of Nonia Maxima-5.  He owned property at Tibur Symm. Ep. vii 31.

Two of the Epigrammata Bobiensia were addressed to him, Epigr. Bob. 48.
In balneas Attici cos. (praising the 'balnea quae consul Nonius instituit') and
Epigr. Bob. 57 Ad Nonium Atticum de opere suo (the author invites Atticus
in his rural retreat to read his verses).  Therefore, in the same time period that

St. Jerome states that the Jews believe, that at the time of the Messiah, Jews
of Senatorial rank will come from Spain, Gaul and Britain . . . "de Britannis" ;
there is proof positive that the part Jewish Tineius family had obtained the
Senatorial rank at Rome, Italy.

Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson, Litt.D., A Historical Phonology of Breton,
published in 1967 for the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, p. 1, notes
that the "earliest bands of British colonists" were "beginning to emigrate
at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions in the middle of the 5th century."
Primitive Breton h shows on page 575 the word:
Tenhet, 2nd pl. future of tenn- "draw",
as noted from the MB text Le Mystere de Sainte Barbe, published
in A.D. 1557 and probably composed during the first half of the 16th century.
This relates well to R. Morton Nance, Ed., A Cornish-English Dictionary,
[England], (1967 reprint [first published by the Federation Of Old Cornwall
Societies, 1955]), p. 92, wherein:
ten, m. pl. -now, pull, pulling, drag, . . . drawing of breath . . .
tenna, vb. to pull, pluck, haul, drag, draw, take off, extract.
This in turn relates to p. 98,
tyn, f. or m. pl. -yon, fast ground left in mine working, end (of material, etc.).
Greek: Teino;
Cornish: Tedna;
English: Draw].
Therefore, it appears the base tyn relates to the work involved
in and the efforts made to extract Tin (Tynne) from the ground.
The Welsh and English Dictionary further notes that:
tynn & Tynniad, s.m., is a draught, a pull
Tynn, a., straight, tight, that is tied hard or close, that is drawn tight,
stretched, stuffed. . . .  Also, stubborn, pertinacious
Tin, s.m., the fundament, the breech, the bum.
Tennyn, s.m., a chord, a rope, a halter.
The New Cassell's German Dictionary, (A.D. 1971), mentions:
Tenne: threshing floor, floor of a barn

Historic Hertfordshire [England] discusses pagan relationships in this time
frame. "The Angels and Saxons [Germanic peoples who settled in Britain
in the 5th and 6th centuries] were not Christians, they were pagans,
and had a number of gods, such as Woden the Sky God, Tin, the War God,
and Thor, the Thunder God. Christian churches were pulled down and pagan
or heathen temples erected in their place. The days of the week were named
Tin's-day [also known as Old Norse Tyr, Old English Tiw, with Anglo-Saxon
runic alphabet sign for W/w (wyn): TI(wyn)], Woden's-day, and Thor's-day,
still perpetuated in present day Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday.

↑ upΛ Middle Ages: A.D. 476 to A.D. 1453

Ronald Wixman, The Peoples of the USSR, An Ethnographic Handbook,
published 1984, wrote information about:
Tin Alt(ernate). Spel(ling). Tinn.
See: Tinn,
Kacha, Khakass. Tinn.
The Tinn are a sub-group of the Kettic speaking Yara. See: Kacha, Khakass.
The Kacha are one of the five territorial (not tribal) divisions of the Khakass.
One of the eleven ulus that went into the formation of the Kacha
was the Kettic Tin, officially Eastern Orthodox in religion, maintaining
many pre-Christian samanistanimist traditions. The Kacha inhabit primarily
the steppe land of the left bank of the Yenisei River and its upper tributaries
in the Khakass AO. Slavonic languages were part of Romany dialects.
George Y. Shevelov, in A Historical Phonology of the Ukrainian Language,
mentions on page 307, of his 1979 publication, at Heidelberg,
by Carl Winter, that:
tin', is a Ukrainian word,
"dial (Perejaslov) tin' 'shadow' :
teni [StU tini].

Tin Hinan, from The Berbers, [North Africa], by Michael Brett and
Elizabeth Fentress, published 1996, pages 206-210, is shown in Plate 6.1,
with source given as B. K. Prorok, Mysterious Sahara, London, 1930.
The skeletal remains of Queen Tin Hinan were located at Abalessa/Algerien,
her tomb being the most famous archaeological site of the desert.
Tin Hinan
was a Berber woman of nobility from the oasis of Tafilet
in Morocco, who journeyed to the Ahaggar and established herself
at Abalessa.  Her daughter Kella was born there and is the person
from whom descend the Kel Rela, according to ancient tradition.
The actual tomb of Tin Hinan revealed the remains of an unusually tall
woman, about 40 years of age.  She lay on a leather-covered wooden
bed, with seven gold bracelets on her right arm and eight silver bracelets
on her left.  Beside her lay a Roman glass cup, as well as a wooden cup
with a Constantinian monogram.  Apparently the structure was constructed
in the second half of the fifth century A.D.  Additionally,
the History of Humanity, Scientific and Cultural Development,
Vol. III, from the Seventh Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A.D.,
published 1996, mentions under the early Christian period, page 326,
that at the end of the fifth century A.D., there was already a church building
at Qasr Ibrim [south of Aswan in the Nile Valley, in Egypt], where a Christian
named Tentani held the important office of philarchos or mayor.

There is some close identity in the names Britannia, Titinia, and Tingitana.
Margaret Deanesly, M.A., A History of Early Medieval Europe 476 to 911,
(London: Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1956), p. 75, mentions that:
"The Roman diocese of Africa included the coastal strip south of the gulf of
the Great Syrtes westward nearly to the promontory opposite the modern
Gibraltar [Tingis]: the province of Tingitana formed part of the prefecture
of the Gauls." Evidence of the presence of organized Jewish communities
in England and France is shown in the eating habits of the local population.
Rabbi Bernard Susser notes in his book The Jews of South-West England,
(1993),  of "some connection between the inhabitants of Devon and Cornwall
and the dwellers on the Palestinian coastline is shown by food habits which
they still hold in common. Both areas use saffron in cooking, particularly in
the baking of cakes. In these two regions as well as in Brittany, which was
also under Celtic influence, clotted cream is manufactured." Additionally,
"A further indication of some degree of intercourse between the ancient
Israelites and Celts is said to be the similarity in sound and meaning
of words and phrases in the Hebrew and Celtic languages."

Traditionally, the Jews have been involved in the history of Cornwall
tin mining. Rude furnaces frequently found beneath the soil of the existing
valleys are called Jew Houses; and the tin, which is often found in blocks,
formed, as it would seem, by running the melted metal into a rude hollow
made in the soil, is called 'Jew's house tin'. P. W. Joyce, LL. D., one
of the Commissioners for the Publication of the Ancient Laws of Ireland,
wrote The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places, Vol. I published
in 1910.  The general meaning of the word house is contained in teach
or tigh.  When tigh is joined with the genitive of the article, it almost always
takes the form of tin or tinna, which is found in the beginning of numerous
names, as: a small town in Carlow, and several townlands in Wicklow
and Queen's County, called Tinnahinch, which represents the Irish
Tigh-na-hinnse, the house of the island or river holm.
Also, examples are given of:
Tincurragh and Tincurry in Wexford and Tipperary,
the house of the curragh or marsh;
Tinnascart in Cork and Waterford, and Tinnascarty in Kilkenny,
the house of the scart or cluster of bushes; etc.
Additional Irish Names of Places are listed in Vol. III, pages 572-574.

The respected author Cecil Roth wrote A History of the Jews in England,
(3rd edition, reprinted 1978). He mentions on p. 3, that:
"In the Dark Ages [the beginning period of the Middle Ages], the
terms 'merchant' and 'Jew' were sometimes used, in western Europe,
virtually as synonyms; and certain branches of trade and manufacture
were almost exclusively in Jewish hands." Cecil Roth notes one Cornish
Jew is found on record in the history of the Middle Ages. The Histories
of Gregory of Tours, written towards the end of the sixth century A.D.,
as noted in The Transformation of the Roman World, A.D. 400 to 900,
published 1997, mentions a Jewish merchant of Paris who did business
with a fellow Jew from Marseille.  The Map in Fig. 27, opposite page 68,
shows recorded activity of foreign merchants in Gaul [France], fifth
to ninth centuries.  The key to Jewish merchants shows locations at Koln,
Trier, Besancon, Macon, Lyons, Vienne, Arles, Marseilles, Narbonne,
Auch, Bordeaux, Clermont, Bourges, Paris, Orleans, Tours, and Nantes.

The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland
During The Middle Ages
, Volume 89, mention is made
of Tinne Mac Aeda in the MS Rawlinson B. 512,
written by various hands, in the 14th and 15th Centuries.
Its contents, almost wholly Irish, under the "Tripartite Life of S. Patrick",
page xxi, #26, the law of Adamna'n, mentions:
"Five Times before Christ's Nativity, to wit,
from Adam to the Flood;
from the Flood to Abraham;
from Abraham to David;
from David to the Captivity in Babylon;
from the Babylonian captivity to Christ's birth.
Women abode in bondage and in baseness at that season till
Adamna'n son of Ronan, meic Tinne meic Aedhv meic Coluim
meic Lugdach meic Shetnu meic Conuild meic Neill, came."

Cumalach was a name for women till Adamna'n came to free them,
and this was the cumalach, the woman for whom a hole was dug at the end
of the door, so that it came over her nakedness; the end of the spit upon her
till the cooking of the portion ended.  After she had come out of the earth pit
she had to dip a candle four man's handbreadths [long] in a plate of butter
or lard; that candle had to be on her palm until division and distribution
[of liquor] and making beds, in houses of kings and superiors,
had ended.  That woman had no share in bag nor in basket,
nor in company of the house-master; but she dwelt in a booth outside
the enclosure, lest bane from sea or land should come to her superior
. . . This is the knowledge of Adamna'n's law upon Ireland and Scotland.

The Irish Pedigrees or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation,
by John O'Hart, records land divisions. "Conacht he divided
into three parts between Fiochah, Eochaidh Allat, and Tinne,
son of Conragh, son of Ruadhri Mor, etc. Tinne married
Princess Maedhbh, who was the constituted King of Conacht;
Maedhbh being hereditary Queen of that Province. After many years
reign, Tinne was slain by Maceacht or Monaire at Tara. The Tinney
and variations family name appears in The History of Ireland,
Geoffrey Keating, D.D., (London: Irish Texts Society, 1914), INDEX:
Tinne, s. of Aodh, and gf. of St. Adhamman, III. 118
Tinne, s. of Connraidh, gets a division of Connaught from
Eochaidh Feidhlioch, I. 118, II. 158, 184, 186; marries Meadhbh, 186;
gives a site for a fortress (Cruachain) to Eochaidh Feidhlioch, 186;
Meadhbh long survives, 196.
Tinne, s. of Cormac Cas, II 354.

A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain, (1991), lists Teneu
(Thaney) as the mother of St. *Kentigern, circa A.D. 530. Teneu is said
in the twelfth century Lives of Kentigern to have been the daughter of
Leudonus, a king of the Votadini or Gododdin, a British tribe occupying
territory south of the Firth of Forth [an inlet of the North Sea extending
about 50 miles into southeastern Scotland]. Cyril Noall mentions contact
with Alexandrian seamen, in A.D. 600, in his book: Geevor Tin Mines plc
Pendeen, Penzance, Cornwall [England]. Jews are also mentioned in Irish
history by an epistle of St. Columbanus, A.D. 613, to Pope Boniface IV.
Claiming not to be a Judaiser, he notes none of us has been a heretic,
none a Jew, none a schismatic.

Transactions of the Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire,
Vol. 32, pages 97-98, n. 98; notes Romanized Britons apparently,
had continued to use the currency of the Empire down to the middle
of the 6th century, and then began to supply their wants by imitations
of the same, close in design. At the time of the coming of Queen Bertha
& Bishop Liudhard to Kent, the Teutonic colonists of Britain were content
with reproducing imitations of Roman coins. On one of the coins forming
a necklace, found in St. Martin's Church Yard, Canterbury, evidently
a necklace of some lady of high rank in the 7th century [the collection
comprising six gold coins and one Roman intaglio], is mention made
of the moneyer Teneis or Tenaeisi.  The name of the moneyer Teneis
or Tenaeisi is stated to be Celtic (cf. Tenegus, with its variations
in the Chronicles; Tenac, in an Irish Ogham inscription).  Obv. +CORNILIO.
Diademed bust to the right.  Rev. +TENEIS M.  Two men standing,
two hands joined, holding a ring, the other two uplifted and spread out.
This piece is in the Leyden Museum.  The loop attached shows that
it formed part of a necklace . . .

In A.D. 669, Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury [England]
wrote in Liber Poenitentialis concerning relationships between Jews
and Christians. Egbert [Ecgberht], Archbishop of York [England],
wrote in Excerptiones [Canonical Exerptions], published A.D. 740,
additional anti-Jewish prohibitions, forbidding Christians to attend
Jewish feasts. Hibernensis, an 8th century compilation of canons
for the Irish by an Irish monk, states that no ecclesiastical disputes
are to be brought before Jews. The duplication of European continental
decrees or laws within the British Isles, shows legal evidence of a pattern
of multi-national Jewish merchant settlements in the Ireland to England
to France [Gaul] triangle of trade connections. According to:
The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings, (1997), "Towards the end
of the seventh century a significant increase of trade between the Continent
and England led to the development of several relatively large trading centres:
Dorestad on the Rhine,
Quentovic near Boulogne, and,
in England,
Hamwic (the precursor of Southampton),
Fordwich (the port of Canterbury),
Ipswich, and

Trade grew even faster after about A.D. 700, when the Frisians
obtained a very large stock of silver from an unidentified source
and produced from it a huge supply of coinage that quickly spread
throughout the continent and in England."
As noted before, B. Lundman states that on all the Frisian Islands,
quite a number of people with huge curved noses and darker coloring
are found. There are also instances of a similar type found in the coastal
of the British Isles. These darker skin colored people, with slightly
thick lips, have almost "Jewish" noses, and convex "Iberian, nay Assyrian
profiles". This is similar to the population of Cornwall, England
with Semitic traces of the
Jewish-Armenoid type.  A Map showing
Frisian trade in the west, from the seventh to tenth centuries A.D.,
is show in Fig. 30, opposite page 75, in the book:
The Transformation of the Roman World, A.D. 400 to 900,
published 1997; edited by Leslie Webster and Michelle Brown.

It is a known fact that anciently, Jewish slave dealers were
in Northern Gaul, and British slaves were sold in the Roman market-place.
Cecil Roth, in  A History of the Jews in England, mentions that St. Florinus,
who worked in Switzerland and the Tyrol some time between the seventh
and ninth centuries, is said to have been the son of a Jewess married
to an Englishman, as noted from 'Vita S. Florini', in Analecta Bollandiana,
xvii, 199 ff.  Northern Ireland, the Glasgow area of Scotland, the Cornwall
to London area of southern England and on up the coast to Yorkshire
to northeast Scotland is the major merchant sea-travel inter-link resident
living sector for the Tinney and variations surname in the British Isles.

TUNNA. -- Presbyter and abbot of a monastery named after him Tunnacaestir.
-- Fl. A.D. 679; 250: Tunna / = 1x.;
as noted in Old English Personal Names in Bede's History, [England],
An Etymological-Phonological Investigation, by Hilmer Strom, published 1939,
Lund Studies in English, Vol. VIII, pages XLII-XLIII, 37-38, 77, 177-178.  Also,
TATUINI. -- Archbishop of Canterbury A.D. 731 to 734.
350: Tatuini  --Tatuuine C / Tatuini -- Tatuuine C /
356: Tatuini -- Tatuuine C / = 3x
Tatuini had been a priest in the monastery at Briudun,
i.e., Breedon-on-the-Hill, Leicestershire, England.
[Research note:  From previous documentation, mention was made
that at RIBCHESTER, [England], # 593. Building-stone, 12 x 9.5 in. (1/8),
found before 1821 at Ribchester and bequeathed by Whitaker
to St. John's College, Cambridge, where it now is. Drawn by R. G. C., 1927.
CIL vii 228. Watkin Lancs. 130 with fig. Hopkinson
Ribchester (ed. 3, Atkinson) 28 no. 9,
coh(ortis) X / c(enturia) Titiana / o(peris) p(edes) /
'From the tenth cohort the century of Titius (built) 27 feet of the work.'
The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, by J. R. Martindale,
published 1980, Vol. II, A.D. 395-527, page 1122, mentions Titianvs 2,
A.D. 398, in office in Sicily, whence Symmachus' agent Euscius
reported favourably on his conduct.  Also, Titianus 3, in A.D. 400.  Titianus
and Helpidius 3, having completed their legal training, were commended
by Symmachus to the CSL Limenius as suitable for judicial work.]

These just mentioned items are further discussed in:
The Kassel Manuscript of Bede's
'Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum' and its old English material
by T. J. M. Van Els, published 1972, with listings of: (pages)
Tatuini, 42, 106f., 170, 191, 197, 208, 215.
Tina/Tinus, 106f., 171.
Tunna, 107, 173, 197, 204.
Tunna is a personal name, a short form of a compound name with tun.
[The royal manor was the king's tun, as noted in
Ecclesiastical Administration in Medieval England,
The Anglo-Saxons To The Reformation
, by Robert E. Rodes, Jr., (1977)]
O. E. tun 'enclosure, field, dwelling, village, town'  The Surnames of Scotland
shows Tinning as a local surname recorded in Dumfrieshire. Tyning
is a not too uncommon English field name, from O. E. tynen, to hedge in.
Later, mention is made of:
Tinney, Tinhay, Tuneum, from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Edward II,
[England], A.D. 1307 to 1327, with Vol. II, A.D. 1313 to 1317, page 598,
Tinney, Tinhay, Tuneum, in Lifton parish, Co. Devon [England],
10 Nov 1316, York - Membrane 8d . . . John Wyth of Tinney (de Tuneo),
John le Webbe of Tinney . . . etc.  Other research shows the name
is interchangeably Tinnie (Tynnie) and Tintinie, sometimes one
spelling in the Registers and another in the Bishops Transcripts.
, from the Oxford English Dictionary, is to cover (with tin);
tine or tyne: to shut the door, mouth, to enclose.
Tunna was Abbot of the monastery he had founded at Tunnacestir.
When his brother Imma was severely wounded in the Battle of the Trent
in A.D. 679, he went out to search for him.

In Studia Rosenthaliana, Vol. 10, Number 2, (July 1976),
a study is done by Norman Gold to determine the original home
of the Jewish Great Mahazor of Amsterdam. There is "a phenomenon
associated with the Carolingian reign, which consisted in a Jewish authority,
holding a position of dominance and power over the Jews of a wide area,
being established in certain of the realms controlled by Charlemagne
(A.D. 742-814; reign 768-814) and his descendants." . . . "Another such
hierarchic Jewish authority appears to have been established at Rouen
[in the earlier Middle Ages]." In Carolingian times Rouen [in northern France]
"was of course the main city of Neustria, an archbishopric and one of the hotels
de monnaies
of the Empire, and later, with the coming of the Normans,
the chief center of the territories taken over by them." The merchant travels
of the Jews is noted by Charlemagne [King of the Franks A.D. 768-814)],
circa A.D. 800. [Monachus Sangallensis de Carolo Magno, II, 14]
Charlemagne, after watching a ship approach Narbonne
[on the Mediterranean Sea], decided that it was a Norman vessel,
while others in his party stated that it belonged to African,
Jewish, or British merchants.

Joseph Cohen, circa A.D. 1575, wrote from the Hebrew standpoint,
Emek Habacha. About A.D. 810, Jews fled from the violence of conflict
in the region of present day Germany, to England and elsewhere.  This is
verified in The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings, as "It is clear,
however, that the raids along the North Sea littoral became more frequent
in the A.D. 830s, and more penetrating and sustained thereafter; and it
may be significant that these developments coincided with increasing
degrees of social and political unrest in the affected countries."  Ecgberht,
King of the West Saxons, fought against a combined force of Vikings
and Cornish at Hingston Down, in Cornwall County, England, in A.D. 838.
A contemporary document in the year A.D. 833, by Whitglaff [Witglass],
King of the Mercians, formally endowed to the monks of Croyland with all
the property they had previously been given by former Kings of Mercia;
also, all the property they had been given by any Christians or Jews.
"Seeing as the Jews obviously had land either to give or have taken away
from them by this date, they must certainly have already been living in the
region for some time in order to have come by the land in the first place."
[See:  Anglia Judaica or A History of the Jews in England]

AElfric (A.D. 955-1020), educated under AEthelwold at Winchester,
composed a Colloquy to his Latin Grammar, showing Anglo-Saxon
society in his lifetime. Gold, Tin, etc., were discussed under the occupation
of The Merchant, the typical occupation of the Jew. John Hatcher mentions
in: English Tin Production and Trade before 1550, page 17, that Ibn Jacub,
a well-travelled Arab in the late tenth century, notes Jewish merchants
and others were wont to frequent Prague [capital of present day Czechoslovakia].
There they purchased tin as well as slaves, furs, and other European wares.
Individuals of Jewish ancestry were in positions of authority at this time period
in Italy, as show by the writings of Ferdinand Gregorovius, concerning
the History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages, [Italy], Vols. I-VIII.
All of this combined indicates the existence of a European
wide network of Jewish merchant contacts.

Book VII of this work, Chapter III, the History of the City of Rome in the
Eleventh Century, in Vol. IV, Part I., notes [see also Vol. V, page 133 note.]:
The Trasteverines [the densely populated Jews' quarter in Trastevere, Rome],
or their chief, Leo de Benedicto Christiano, a man of Jewish descent,
opened the gates, upon which Godfrey's troops occupied the Leonina
and the island.  On his own authority Hildebrand deprived the Prefect Peter
of his office, and conferred it upon John Tiniosus, a nobleman of the Trastevere
 . . . {2} John was still prefect on 28 Apr 1060; he signs himself, Reg. Farf., n. 935:
Johanne dom. gr. Romanorum prefectus. As stated heretofore,
Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora, from Alexander to Trajan,
by John M. G. Barclay, published 1996, page 290, notes that Jews in Rome
became securely established and that by Augustus' time they were settled
predominantly on the right bank of the Tiber, an area that is now called
the Trastevere.  This surname is additionally validated to be Jewish
by the previously noted Corpus of Jewish Inscriptions, Jewish Inscriptions
from the Third Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A. D., with # 530 showing
(F Sabbatius; H Felix Tineosus Iudaeus; N Creticus Iudeus).

The Jewish Quarterly Review, edited by I. Abrahams and C. G. Montefiore,
Vol. III, (1891), reprinted by Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1966, pp 555-556,
ANGLO-JUDAICA, contains an article about "Three Centuries of Genealogy
of the Most Eminent Anglo-Jewish Family before [A.D.] 1290". "The Library
at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, . . . contains a parchment MS, numbered lxxxvii,
. . . consisting of 286 small folio leaves, unpaginated". There is a notice that
relates to the history of the Jews in England before A.D. 1290. This
genealogical record, having authentic internal evidence, establishes one
R. Simeon the Great in the time frame approximately 300 years before
the writer of the record, or just at "the turn of the year [A.D.] 1000".
Edward or Eadward, called The Confessor (died A.D. 1066),
last Anglo-Saxon King of the English, had one law that stated:
Judei et omnia sua, Regis sunt.  [The Jews and everything
they have or possess
is part of the property of the King

It is significant to note that later, during the reign of King Henry III, all the
tin mine workers, or tinners, in both Devonshire and Cornwall, were
called the King's Tinners.  This establishes a direct word usage connection
between the Jews being the property of the King during the time of Eadward,
The Confessor, and the Tin industry in southwest England.  For example,
there is a Royal Writ, directing the Bailiffs of Lydford to permit the Tinners
of Devonshire to take coal from Dartmoor, for tin-processing, dated:
6 Henry III., A.D. 1222, as follows:  Rex baillivis de Ledeford [Lydford] salutem.
Precipimus vobis quod permittatis stagnarios nostros Devonie capere et habere
carbonem in mora nostra de Dertemore ad stagnariam nostram sicut habere
consueverint tempore domini Johannis patris nostri et nostro, nec eis inde faciatis
vel fieri permittatis molestiam vel impedimentum.  Teste apud Turrim London.
18 die Julii.  Close Roll., printed edition, paged 505.  [See:
A Perambulation of the Antient and Royal Forest of Dartmoor and the Venville
Precincts; or a Topographical Survey of their Antiquities and Scenery
, by the late
Samuel Rowe, M.A. (Cambridge, 1833), {born 11 Nov 1793; died 15 Sep 1853};
3rd ed. published London, A.D. 1896; pages 287-288]

Norman Gold notes in Studia Rosenthaliana, [Vol. 10, Number 2,
(July 1976)], that an intact Jewish community remained at Rouen
[northern France]. This may "be inferred from the account related
by a near contemporary, Guibert of Nogent, detailing the pogrom,
which took place there at the beginning of the First Crusade"
[11th century A.D.]. The first Jewish settlers from Rouen to England,
in A.D. 1066, as mentioned by Latin chroniclers [Gesta Regum Anglorum,
by William of Malmesbury, iv. 317], by transfer of William the Conqueror,
were the elite Jewish Merchant, Financial and Religious leadership
of the Rouen community, in line with historical tradition. Trusted Jewish
"King men", loyal to William the Conqueror, appear to have replaced
the local conquered English Jewish communal and financial heads.
Dan Rottenberg, in Finding Our Fathers: A Guidebook to Jewish Genealogy,
notes that the Jews were in England at the time of the coming
of William the Conqueror, and were noted in the later record:
The Domesday Book of A.D. 1085-1086.

TEINI- (xi 92; 118), seems to be applied in Domesday,
not only to the Saxon Nobility, but to Freeholders of inferior estate,
as noted in Vol. 12 of the Antiquities of Shropshire, England.
The Collections for a History of Staffordshire, [England],
edited by The Wm. Salt Archaeological Society,
notes in Vol. I, published 1880, pages 159-162, 299-300, that:
page 160-161, The Domesday Survey names Tene, Hotone,
and Selte, in Staffordshire, and two Estons in Oxfordshire, amongst
Robert de Stafford's lands. . . . Circa A.D. 1150, Hilbert de Tene
witnesses the confirmation by Robert de Stafford, of Robert fitz Noel's
foundation charters of Ranton Priory. [Ranton Chartulary.]  A deed
in the Huntbach MS. at Wrottesley,shews that Gilbert de Tene,
living circa A.D. 1150, had two sons, William and Robert; that William
died, leaving no issue, and was succeeded by a brother Robert,
who left an only daughter and heir.  The William mentioned in this deed,
is the William fitz Gilbert of the Liber Niger.  A deed is witnessed
by Herbert de Tene in A.D. 1160, and by Robert and William,
brothers of Herbert. . . . also called Tean or Thena [Thene].
Thus: page 162,
Gilbert, The Domesday tenant of Hopton and Salt,
is listed as the father of
Ilbert de Tene (31 H[enry] I), [A.D. 1130-31];
Ilbert de Tene was the father of:
(1) Herbert de Tene, ob. s.p.
(2) William of the Liber Niger, ob. s.p.
(3) Robert; this Robert  was the father of Alice who married
Robert de Beck, dead 34 H[enry]. 2. [A.D. 1187-1188]

Tairdelbach [alias Turlough O'Brien (A.D. 1009 to 1086)], King of Munster
[an ancient kingdom and historic province in Ireland that occupies
the southwestern portion of the Republic of Ireland], was the grandson
of Brian Boru(mha). [Brian Boru became chief king of Ireland in A.D. 1002,
but was slain after a victory over the Danes at Clontarf, near Dublin,
in A.D. 1014. The unity of Ireland did not survive Brian Boru.]
In the year A.D. 1079, five Jews came over sea with gifts
to Tairdelbach and they were sent back again over sea.

Tynninghame, from Anglo-Norman Durham, A.D. 1093-1193,
[England], published 1994, page 4, is mentioned under note 12,
wherein "Likewise, in 1094 King Duncan II gave Durham
Tynninghame and Broxmouth north of the Tweed."  S. D. Goitein
mentions in A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities
of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza
references to tin imported into Alexandria in the 12th century A.D.
These documents, preserved in the Cairo gheniza, [most of which date
from the 11th and 12th centuries], are mentioned by Eliyahu Ashtor
in East-West Trade in the Medieval Mediterranean,
(London, England: Varioum Reprints, 1986), pages 565-566.
"Money is sent from one city in Egypt to another by means of the suftadja:
for instance . . . from Tinnis (in the Delta) to Fostat . . . The exact
specification of the coins paid shows clearly that the writer intended
to receive the same dinars in Tinnis. On page 580, it is stated that
"The centre of the world famous Egyptian linen industry in Tinnis
had been destroyed in A.D. 1227 by order of the Ayyubid sultan
al-Malik al-Kamil, to prevent the town from falling into the hands
of the Crusaders, and remained in ruins thereafter."

Tin is found in the Index of Arabic Names, from the book:
Moses Maimonides' Glossary of Drug Names, translated from
Max Meyerhof's French Edition; edited by Fred Rosner, Long Island,
(New York, USA) Jewish-Hillside Medical Center; published 1979 by
The American Philosophical Society. Moses, son of Maimon, (Rambam),
in Hebrew, Abu Irran Musa Ibn Maimun in Arabic, was born in Cordova,
Spain on 30 Mar 1135 . . . Maimonides turned to medicine as a livelihood
only after the death of his father in A.D. 1166 and the death of his brother
in a shipwreck shortly thereafter.

Mention is made in the Content of the Glossary of Drug Names, that
Maimonides excluded from his list well known drugs and, of course,
those with only one name.  As examples of the latter one might mention:
. . . fig (tin) and cantharides (dararih), which are often described among
the simple remedies in Maimonides' medical and theological works, but
which are lacking in his glossary of synonyms of drugs.  A fig (tin), is any of
several trees or shrubs native to the Mediterranean region or warm regions,
widely cultivated for its edible fruit.  The sweet, pear-shaped many-seeded
fruit of this tree is greenish, yellowish to orange, or purple when ripe.
In the Jewish aristocratic Avtinus family, merchants and spice makers,
according to The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 17, Seder Kodashim, (Vol. III),
Tamid, Chapter II, 13-14, was a connection between frankincense and
the fig tree.  In placing fire upon the Altar in the Temple at Jerusalem,
what was mostly used were boughs of fig trees and of nut trees and of oil
trees.  "They picked out from there some specially good fig-tree branches
and with these he laid a second fire for the incense."  The preparation of
the incense was under the direct supervision of the Avtinus family.

In the Index of Arabic Names,
[These are nearly all the medicamented earths introduced into medicine
by the Greeks.  The Arabs faithfully preserved the names, although it
was impossible for them to procure the earths of the Greek island.],
a listing is given of:
tin, number 172, listed under Chapter Ta', on page 122a, Clay, argil.
Argil is clay, especially a white clay used by potters, from Greek argillos.
The Indo-Europeans knew metal and metallurgy and silver was *arg-,
meaning "white (metal)"; Latin argentium, silverTin was also
a malleable, silvery metallic element obtained chiefly from cassiterite.

The Index of Arabic Names continues with:
tin ahdar, number 249, (at-tin al-ahdar), "green earth".
tin ahmar, number 238, (at-tin al-ahmar), "the red earth".
tin el-fil, number 82, tin el-fil, ("elephant fig").
tin al-akl, number 172, "edible earth", is a white argil.
tin armalli, number 172, Armenian bole still sold in Cairo;
a clay earth tinted red by iron oxide.
tin armini, number 172, "Armenian earth" is a red and viscous argil . . .
(for compresses on fractures which required reduction).
tin Hawa, number 172, "Eve's earth".
tin huzi, number 172, "Khouzistan earth",
named for the province in the southwest of Persia.
tin ibliz, number 172, is the ancient name of the (sour) lime
of the Nile (Egypt), still used today in compresses.
tin al-kawkab, number 172, "star earth", same as "Samos earth".
tin mahtum, number 172, Sigillate earth,
a hydrated peroxide of iron (antitoxin).
tin misri, number 172, "Egyptian earth", the same as Tin ibliz.
tin naisaburi, number 172, "the earth of Nichapour",
(Oriental Persia), is a white argil.  The custom of eating
one type of earth still persists in Afghanistan.
tin Qimuliya, number 172, "cimolite earth".
tin qubrusi, number 172, "Cyprus earth",
similar to the "Armenian earth"; a clay earth tinted red by iron oxide.
tin rumi, number 172, "Romaic earth", similar to the "Armenian earth";
also called ("Greek earth"); a clay earth tinted red by iron oxide.
tin Samus, number 172, "Samos earth", the same as "star earth";
Samian earth was very well known in European medicine,
and used to arrest hemorrhages according to the prescriptions of Galen.

The Introduction to the History of Science, by George Sarton,
published 1948, Vol. III, includes in a list of Chinese words,
(Chinese Index and Glossary to Volumes 1, 2 and 3), the word:
ti, meaning (earth).
The History of Chinese Society - Liao, A.D. 907 to 1125, published
March, 1949, in the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society,
New Series, Vol. 36, (1946), shows under social organization, kinship system,
customs, traditions, Table 10, page 208:
Generation 6 (i) Tien-ni, noted as Shen-tsung's 6th daughter by a concubine.
Tien-ni was an Imperial Princess, the spouse of Hsiao Shuang-ku.

Tenne in Heraldry is the same as the "mark of a Jew"; heraldic tinge
or stain of orange, colors between red and yellow in hue.
[Research Note from: Notes and Queries, [England],
A Medium of Intercommunication for Literary Men, General Readers, Etc.,
7th Series, Volume VII, (January-June 1889), pages 493-494 [of Vol. 79],
dated 22 June 1889.  It states, among other items of interest:
Tenne, Tawney, orange, or brusk, orange colour. . . . Tenney, or more
usually tenne, is an heraldic tincture of an orange or orange chestnut colour.
It is not much employed in modern English blazonry.
Like all our other heraldic terms, it is derived from the French,
where it appears under the form tanne.  It is really identical with tawney . . .
This word is the same as tawny, and is Old French, like other heraldic language.
The colour is a dark orange yellow, and used sometimes to be called one
of the two "dishonourable" colours, sanguine being the other.]

Colonel I. S. Swinnerton, Heraldry Can Be Fun!,
(Stourbridge: Swinford Press, 1986), pp. 6, 12, declares that Heraldry
started sometime between A.D. 1125 and 1150; that the colour brown
called Tenne, is rarely seen in use on the shield.
Bradford B. Broughton, Dictionary of Medieval Knighthood and Chivalry,
(Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1986), pp. 4, 116, 243, 403, 431, 446
describes: TENNE  It is the Heraldic tinge or stain of orange.
Under abatements, rebatements, or marks of disgrace,
it is attached to heraldic arms by reason of a dishonorable act of the bearer.
It is colored either sanguine or Tenne.
Tenne* (orange) was a color, principal Metal* and color of the coat
in the "coat of arms"; that Tenne* (orange) was one of the six tinctures
used to stain the nobility of arms*; that Tenne was an orange.
Thus, the word Tenne is designated by the color orange in Heraldry.

Law Dictionary
, Revised 4th Editon, mentions Tenne,
a term of heraldry begun in the early part of the 12th century A.D.
It meant orange in color. "In engravings it should be represented
by lines in bend sinister crossed by others bar-ways. Heralds who blazon
by the names of the heavenly bodies, call it 'Dragon's Head', and those
who employ jewels, 'Jacinth'. It is one of the colors called 'Stainand'. Wharton."
{8} Tinnellus, in old Scotch law, was the sea mark, the high water mark,
or the tide mouth. The Tineman, Sax., in old forest law, was a petty officer
the forest, one who had the care of vert and venison by night, and performed
other servile duties. The statement in What's In Your Name, that the Tenney
surname is in origination from "an unvoiced form of Denny", with Tenney
beginning as a surname in the 12th century in England, is incorrect.

"The Yellow Badge in History", by Professor Guido Kisch,
in the publication Historia Judaica, is further discussed by
Ilse Lichtenstadter, Library, Jewish Theological Seminary, New York.
In "The Distinctive Dress of Non-Muslims in Islamic Countries", he notes
the Jews in Egypt wore a yellow turban, and with other people outside
the pale of Islam, were required to ride on mules and asses only.
J. S. Harris, in The Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society,
Vol. V, (1963-1965), has an article concerning:
"The Stones of the High Priest's Breastplate". The first stone is Sardius,
passed into our language as the modern SARD now accepted as a name
for the reddish brown Chalcedony. It is mentioned in the abbreviated
form as part of the Mara [cha] dyou street location in the Town of Penzance,
Cornwall, England. J. S. Harris states lighter reddish orange shades known
as Carnelian, are most often found as pebbles lying loose on the surface or in
gravel deposits in the Arabian and Egyptian Deserts. This gives connections
both by stone and travel mode [ass] as to the origins of the mark of the Jew.

The suggestion is made by Cyrus H. Gordon of Brandeis University,
in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 29, Number 3, (July 1970),
that His Name Is "ONE", in numerical designation- or the first stone of
the Urim and Thummim. The beginning and ending of all things are the
Words of Yahweh coming forth out of the Urim and Thummim, the same
as the still small voice coming onward unto Elijah the Prophet; conversing
with the Lord through the veil in the Temple on Mount Zion in Jerusalem.

↑ upΛ Sample Reference to Early Tinney [and Variations] Surnames:

Tenne, Roger de, from The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain
and Ireland During the Middle Ages, Vol. 33, Historia et Cartularium
Monasterii Gloucestriae (S. Petri), Tenne, Roger de, I. 389 . . . A. D. 1154
to 1189  CCCCXVII. De eodem. (This charter appears to be misplaced.
It relates not to Littleton but to Radeham.)

Sciant praesentes et futuri, quod ego Johannes, Dei gratia abbas Sancti Petri
Gloucestriae et ejusdem loci conventus, concessimus, et hac praesenti carta
nostra confirmavimus, Rogero de Tenne et haeredibus suis, totam terram
illam quam dedit Lucas de Clanefelde in Radehamme cum omnibus
pertinentiis suis; habendam et tenendam de nobis et successoribus nostris
sibi et haeredibus suis jure haereditario in perpetuum, adeo libere et quiete,
bene et in pace, sicut nos (f. 110b.) eandem terram tenuimus.

Reddendo inde annuatim nobis et successoribus nostris ipse et haeredes
sui unam marcam argenti ad duos terminos, videlicet medietatem ad festum
Sancti Michaelis, et aliam medietatem ad festum Beatae Mariae in Martio,
pro omnibus servitiis et saecularibus demandis ad nos ratione dictae terrae
pertinentibus; salvis nobis et successoribus nostris duabus sectis curiae nostrae
ab eodem Rogero et haeredibus suis nobis annuatim apud Lutletone faciendis.
Salvis etiam principalibus dominis feodi redditu annuo sectis et servitiis eisdem
ratione dictae terrae debitis et consuetis.  Salvo etiam regali servitio.  Idem vero
Rogerus juramentum nobis praestitit, etc.  Et ad majorem, etc . . .

Tinneme, Semer, Pipe Roll Society Publications, [England], 1st Series,
Vol. 4, page 29, (A.D. 1160-1161)
Tinneme, Semer,

The surname Tinney and variations is found interchangeably as
Tinnie/Tynnie and Tintinie. For example,
in the Pipe Roll Society Publications, [England], 1st Series:
Tinniaco, Willelmus de,   Vol. 16, p. 007, A.D. 1170-1171
[is written later as:]
Tintiniaco, Willelmus de, Vol. 19, p. 123, A.D. 1172-1173
Tintiniaco, Willelmus de, Vol. 21, p. 042, A.D. 1173-1174,
Norfolch' . 7 Svdfolch
Tintiniaco, Willelmus de, Vol. 22, p. 114, A.D. 1174-1175
[Research Note:  Daniel Waley mentions in the book:
The Papal State in the Thirteenth Century, [Italy], published 1961,
Chapter IX, The Military Utility of the Papal State, pages 276-277, that:
Before the provincial divisions of the State were firmly fixed some other
form of boundary might be named as the limit . . .
{1} Ficker, Forschungen, IV, d. 225.  In the twelfth century Orvieto had
owed military service between Tintinanno in the north and Sutri in the south
(Lib. Cens., I, 391).  A Medieval Italian Commune, Siena Under The Nine,
A.D. 1287 - 1355, by William M. Bowsky, published 1981, notes on pages 6
and 9, Rocca d'Orica or Tintinnano; that for Rocca d'Orica or Tintinnano,
purchased by Siena in A.D. 1250 and sold to the Salimbeni in A.D. 1274,
see Repertorio; Lodovico Zdekauer, La carta libertatis e gli statuti della
Rocca di Tintinnano, 1207-1297, BSSP, III (1896), 327-376 . . .]

Tintinhull, from the publications of the Selden Society, [England],
Vol. CVII, for the year 1991, English Lawsuits from William I to Richard I,
Vol. II, Henry II and Richard I, (Nos 347-665), #588,
MONTACUTE Cart., f{o}58 v{o} (incomplete), dated 03 Oct A.D. 1187,
"In the year of the Lord 1187 I, Oliver de Lanvaley, lord of Kingston,
have recognized in the presence of Jocelin, prior of Montacute, at Tintinhull
in the full hundred court held there on the Saturday in the octave of Michaelmas
that I Oliver and my men from the vill of Kingston are obligated to go
three times a year to the said hundred of Tintinhull, as the other suitors
and tithings of the said hundred come and are bound to come to it, namely
on the octave of Michaelmas, on the octave of Epiphany and on the octave
of Hock Day and that my foresaid men shall present there everything
which [belongs] to frankpledge . . .(1)
{o}[For the rights of the abbey of Montacute in the hundred of Tintinhull
see Regesta iii, no. 591-592; Two cartularies of the Augustinian priory
Bruton and the Cluniac priory of Montacute, (London), 1894, no. 58,
p. 146, (Somerset Record Society 8) (Calendar.]{o}
[Research Notes: P. W. Whitcombe, letter dated 17 June 1975,
from 257 Chichester Road, Bognor Regis, Sussex, P021 5AH, ENGLAND,
wrote: "Dear Mr. Tinney,
When I was at the Society of Genealogists a few days ago I saw your family
publication which interested me as we have Tinneys as ancestors from the
seventeenth century . . . I have got back to a marriage in High Ham, Somerset
(15 Oct 1574) between William Tynnie and Elizabeth Whitehead. . . .
The name is interchangeably Tinnie (Tynnie) and Tintinie, sometimes one
spelling in the Registers and another in the Bishops Transcripts. . . . I am sure
this comes from the Hamlet of Tintenhull, a little to the south of High Ham
and Long Sutton where I have found them. . . ."
This compound word form and location still originates from the metal tin
and tin mining. Tintinnabulum was a bell, ancient bells, as a bell
announcing a sacrifice; like currently used church bells, sheep bells, door-bells,
or bells for summoning servants.  A History of the County of Oxford, Vol. XI,
published in 1983, notes on page 43 that Duckworth was the author
who wrote in A.D. 1668, the book: "Tintinnalogia, or the Art of Ringing.
Tintinhull appears anciently to have been a gathering location to summon
local leaders for meetings.  Tin-kling was used with a bell of "tinned' iron.
Thus, from the Latin language, Tinnio, to ring, tinkle, to sing, scream
or sound the alarm, to chink or to pay the money, to bring to account.
The use of the word Tin for money appears to have ancient origins
in the Latin word tinnio, which would relate to the activities
of the payment for goods and services by Jewish tin merchants
and others engaged in commerce between nations or individuals.]

Tineo, See:
Asturias de Tineo, from The Aristocracy in Twelfth-Century Leon and Castile,
[Spain], Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, Ser. 4, Vol. 34,
pages 239, 247, 273, 300:
Dated 5 Feb 1193, Asturias de Tineo; listed under Appendix I,
The counts of Leon
and Castile, as a tenencias of Fernando Nunez De Lara;
Dated 23 May 1189 and 21 Sep 1192,
as a tenencias of Froila Ramirez;
Dated 01 Sep 1146 and 18 July 1167,
Tineo listed as a tenencias of Pedro Alfonso;
Dated 26 May 1120 and 21 May 1136,
Tineo listed as a tenencias of Suero Vermudez.
[Research Note: Asturias is a location shown on a map
of Western Spain and Portugal, circa A.D. 1150, page xvi.
It is a region and former kingdom and province of northwest Spain.
It is located on the shores of the Bay of Biscay, geographically west
of France and southwest of the English Channel.  [See:
Cross-Channel Seamanship and Navigation in the Late First Millennium B.C.,
by Sean McGrail, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 2, No. 3,
November 1983, pages 319-on, BAY OF BISCAY AND CHANNEL ROUTES.]

Mention is made in the Pipe Roll Society Publications, [England],
New Series, Vol. 5, page 170, of TINNEY, in Lifton, Devonshire,
vide BITUINIA, during 6 Richard I (A.D. 1194), Michaelmas.

d Ros amunda debet xl s. pro habenda rationabili parte sua
de feodo iiij militum in Sideham. et Alreford'. et Panestana et Kari.
et Aslega. et Wagefen. et Mewi. et bituinia{8} (Bitwinnia C.R.)
.uersus widonen de Albemar' et . . .

Tinneston, Thomas de, from Pipe Roll Society Publications, [England],
1st Series, Vol. 24, page 218, Feet of Fines, A.D. 1198-1199

Tene, Robert de, from
The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland
During the Middle Ages
, Vol. 53, page 17,
Historic and Municipal Documents of Ireland,
(date assigned to the latter part of the twelfth century),
is . . . Robert de Tene . . . in Dublin Roll of Names . . .

Jacobus Presbyter Judaeorum, a man of very high position,
moved freely between Rouen [in France] and London [in England]
at the end of the 12th century, and clearly served as the chief official
of the Jews in both parts of the Angevin realm.
The Black Book of the Exchequer, No. 10, has a letter of De Wrotham,
dated A.D. 1198, with the repeated format of non praesumat homo nec femina,
Christianus nec Judaeus
. In Rome, Italy, as late as the thirteenth century A.D.,
the bridge of Hadrian, the Pons Aelius, is called in the Mirabilia Pons Judaeorum.
This name apparently was given due to the fact that in the Middle ages,
the bridge was lined with Jewish stalls and goods
were exposed there for sale to people passing by.
[See: History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages,
Vol. I, (A.D. 400-568), "The Jews in Rome", pages 316-320.]

The Venetian Republic was friendly to the Jews and was part
of a few Italian cities dominating the commerce of the Mediterranean,
an intermediary in the ancient trade between Europe and Asia, noted
in The World Encompassed, The First European Maritime Empires,
c. A.D. 800 to 1650, by G. V. Scammel, published 1981.
The great and enormously profitable traffic in oriental luxuries
became their prerogative and Venice was turned into one vast entrepot,
the exchange point in Europe's trade with the East.  For the defense
and advance of these trades the Jews, among others, were reasonably
accommodated.  Travel arrangements were also made for pilgrims,
mainly to Jaffa, the port for Jerusalem, now designated as the modern
Tel Aviv. Products went by sea from Venice to England and Flanders,
to south Spain, France and Italy, by land to northern Italy, France,
Switzerland, the Low Countries, part of the east European Continent,
and by merchants of Augsburg, Ulm and Nurnburg into Germany.
Venice received "from England woollen textiles, wool, hides and tin."
There was a Venetian 'factory' in London that dealt in tin, as noted
in the Cal. Venetian State Papers, I, 492.  The Jews, via Italian trade,
kept contact with England well after A.D. 1315, when the Florentines
and others in Italy, had an almost complete control over tin trade.
Also, the Florentine government had authorized money lending
since at least circa A.D. 1330.  Before that, pardons were
regularly issued to those who made such loans.
[See: Pope Eugenius IV and Jewish Money-Lending in Florence:
The Case of Salomone di Bonaventura during the Chancellorship
of Leonardo Bruni*, by Andrew Gow and Gordon Griffiths, beginning
on page 282 of the Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. XLVII, No. 2, Summer 1994.]

King John gave a charter to the tin mines of Cornwall [England]
in A.D. 1201 and in A.D. 1305, Edward I granted another charter,
according to J. R. Leifchild's work: Cornwall Its Mines and Miners.
The grant of King John, dated 29 Oct 1201, stated:
JOHANNES, Die gratia, Rex Angliae, etc.  Sciatis nos concessisse
quod omnes Stammatores nostri in Cornubia et Devonia sint
liberi et quieti de placitis nativorum, dum operantur ad commodum
firme nostre vel commodum marcarum novi redditus nostri.  Quia
stammariae sunt nostra dominica.  Et quod possint omni tempore
libere et quiete absque alicujus hominis vexatione fodere stammum
et turbas ad stammum fundendum ubique in moris et feodis
episcoporum et abbatum comitum sicut solebant et consueverunt
et emere buscam ad funturam stammi sine vasto in regardis
forestarum et divertere aquas ad operationem eorum in stammariis
sicut de antiqua consuetudine consueverunt. Et quod non
recedant ab operationibus suis pro alicujus summonicione nisi per
summonicionem capitalis custodis stammariarum vel baillivorum
ejus.  Concessimus etiam quod capitalis custos stammariarum et
bailivi ejus per eum habeant super predictos stammatores
plenarium potestatem ad eos justificandos et ad rectum producendos
et quod ab eis in carceribus nostris recipiantur si contigerit quod
aliquis praedictorum stammatorum debeat capi vel incarcerari pro
aliquo retto.  Et si contigerit quod aliquis eorum fuerit fugitivus
vel udlugatus quod catella eorum nobis reddantur per manum cus-
todis stammariarum nostrarum, quia stammatores firmarii
nostri sunt et semper in debito [dominico] nostro.  Praeterea concessimus
thesaurariis et ponderatoribus nostris ut sint fideliores et intentiores
ad utilitatem nostram in receptione et custodia thesauri nostri per
villas marcandas quod sint quieti in villis ubi manent de auxiliis
et taillagiis dum fuerint in servito nostra thesaurarii et pondera-
tores nostri quia nihil habent aliud vel habere possunt per annum
pro predicto servicio nostro.  Testibus Wilielmo Comite Sarres-
buriae, Petro de Stokes, Warino filio Geroldi.  Data per manum
S. Wellensis Archidiaconi apud Bonam Villam super Tokam
vicesimo nono die Octobris anno regni nostri tertio.
[CARTAE ANTIQUAE  K.  5.   29 Oct 1201, 3 John.
Confirmed by Inspeximus, 36 Henry III., Rot Cart.  m.  18.]

For a long period in the early history of tin mining, the mines of Cornwall
appear to have been in the hands of the Jews. They became possessors of
them chiefly by taking them as securities for loans granted to the early Dukes
of Cornwall; and at several periods, when the Jews were hotly persecuted,
those engaged in 'tinning' were particularly exempted. Many curious remnants
of the Jewish rule are met with in Cornwall. Rude furnaces are frequently
found beneath the soil of the existing valleys, which are called Jew houses;
and the tin, which is often found in blocks, formed, as it would seem, by
running the melted metal into a rude hollow made in the soil, is called
'Jew's house tin'.  (See also: British Mining, by Hunt.)

Teinus, Reginald le, from Selden Society, [England],
Select Pleas of the Crown, A.D. 1200--1225, Vol. 1, published 1888,
pages 4-5, # 10, under title of: Pleas of the Crown;
I. Pleas before the Justices in Eyre in the Reign of King John;
Pleas at Launceston in the Third Year of the Reign of King John (A.D. 1201);
CORNISH EYRE [CORNWALL, ENGLAND], A.D. 1201, Hundred of Pydershire.
# 10.  Reginald le Teinus accused of the receipt and fellowship
of Robert the outlaw comes and defends.  The jurors say
that they suspect him, and the four neighbouring town-
ships say that they suspect him of it.  So let him purge
himself by water under the Assize.  And there must be
inquiry as to Richard Revel, who was sheriff when
the said Robert escaped from his custody. [Research Note:
By 28 July 1232, a substantial Jewish community was located in Ireland,
as letters to the Jews in Ireland, to be intentive to Peter des Rivall, were issued.]

The town of Marazion, [England], opposite of St. Michael's Mount
[& supposed to be the ancient port to which the traders from the continent came],
is commonly known amongst the Cornish men as Market Jew. A street in
Penzance, leading towards Marazion (Zion by the sea), formerly had the name
of 'Market Jew-street'. About A.D. 1200, Marazion was spelled Marghasbigan.
Market Jew, surviving as Market Jew Street in the Town of Penzance, was
spelled circa 1200 A.D. as Marachadyou. Etymologically, Mar[gh]a s[b]i[g]an
and Mara[cha]dyou, with "dyou" as "De Yew", as in Psalm 68 of the
Old Testament. Jehovah is from the Hebrew Tetragrammaton YHWH
with the addition of the vowel points of Adonai. He is mentioned in shortened
form in "Sing unto God, sing praises, to His Name: extol Him that rideth
upon the heavens by his Name JAH (pronounced YAH, or fully Jahveh
or Yahveh) and rejoice before Him." From a Hebrew Nation standpoint,
the Latin deus (d) speaking of deity Yew, from Yah or Ya [h] v [eh].
[The letter v is ancestral to the letters u, w, y and f.]
Cha represents the abbreviated form of the chalcedony stone equivalent
to the copper [copper of Cyprus, known anciently as the source of the best
copper] or bronze [alloy of copper and tin] emerald. This is a secret word
code representation of the sea of glass and fire [from Latin Mara for sea],
with Jehovah, represented as being at the Mount Zion [Middle English Sion,
Old English Sion, from Late Latin Sion, from Greek Seion, from Hebrew
Siyon] Temple in Jerusalem. This was the place where the Jews who were
pure in heart wished to regather again, from the Diaspora in the British Isles,
to converse with the Lord Jehovah. The letter g inserted twice in
Mar gh a - s b i g an for a representation of the camel, the Middle East
means of transportation, to return to Zion by sea and then over land to
the House of God. The letter b for beth, inserted to represent the House of
the Lord; the letter h, a laryngeal consonant, inserted to represent the use
of the larynx or vocal cords, to converse with Jehovah, the Lord of Hosts.
He had a paved work of pure gold, in color like amber [a hard, translucent,
yellow, orange, or brownish-yellow fossil resin as in Tenne,
the mark of a Jew] under His feet [the cha].

De la Beche gives from the Red Book, in the Exchequer,
a copy of the Regulations for the Stannaries: Liber Rubeus,
of the Treasury, [from the Capitula de Stannatoribus,9 Richard I,],
A.D. 1197-1198, [England]:  Neither man nor woman, Christian nor Jew,
shall presume to buy or sell any tin of the first smelting . . . From this point
forward, the surname Tinney and variations, begins to proliferate
throughout the British Isles, with better record keeping. A very explicit
reference to tin trading by Jews is noted in Camden's Brittania (A.D. 1586).
In the time of King John [known as John Lackland, King of England,
A.D. 1199-1216; son of Henry II and brother of Richard I; signed
the Magna Carta], the tin mines were farmed by the Jews for 100 marks.
[However, their product was very inconsiderable in the time of King John,
the right of working them being wholly in the King, as Earl of Cornwall,
and the mines farmed by the Jews for one hundred marks, and, according
to this proportion, the tenth of it, viz:-- 6 pound 13s. 4d.
is at this day paid by the crown to the Bishop of Exeter.]

The Victoria History of the County of Cornwall, [England],
edited by William Page, F.S.A., Vol. I, reprinted 1975, page 476, states that:
"With the reign of John we have the first official reference to the maritime life of
Cornwall;" in A.D. 1205 orders were sent to the bailiffs of that and other western
counties to procure expert workmen and seamen to build and navigate the king's
ships, {2} (Pat. 6 John, m 2.) and their existence in A.D. 1205 imports previous
generations of craftsmen who furnished unrecorded services.
The Patent and Close Rolls show that the right of impressing ships and men
was strictly enforced during this reign, and the 'common form' character
of the orders proves that it was no new proceeding.  The names of ships
and their owners in the various ports were registered by William of Wrotham,
the administrative head of the navy, and Cornwall is always included
in the writs sent to the counties generally. . . . John's wars in Ireland
and Wales in A.D. 1210 and A.D. 1212 necessitated general arrests
of ships in those years. . . . In A.D. 1226 there was an order forbidding
ships to sail to French ports . . . in A.D. 1230 there was another general
arrest of all ships capable of carrying sixteen or or more horses . . .

Yaqut, (A.D. 1179-1229), from the Dictionary of Scientific Biography,
considered genealogy the science of the kings and nobility.

Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 4, in the B section, presents a review of
information on the Jewish Badge, the distinctive sign compulsorily worn
by Jews [Compare this with the Heraldry practice of marks of disgrace].
Canon 68 of the Fourth *Lateran Council (A. D. 1215), required that Jews
and Saracens of both sexes, in all Christian lands and at all times, were
to be publicly differentiated from the rest of the population by clothing.
In England, the papal influence was at this time particularly strong.

Tun, Regin[aldus] de, from Historical Research, [England],
The Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research,
Vol. 67, Number 162, Feb 1994, page 9, is listed
in The Earliest English Muster Roll, 18/19 December [A.D.] 1215.

Tinne, John de, from the Buckinghamshire Record Society, [England],
Vol. 12,  mention is made that as early as A.D. 1215, John De Tinne,
was archdeacon. Index: Tinne, John de, See Oxford, archdeacons of:
John de Tynemova, or Tinne,               830.
Note:  John de Tinne was archdeacon in A.D. 1215 and his successor
appears in A.D. 1223 (Le Neve, Fasti), and see no.  828.
Grant to Ralf once official of John de Tynemova, archdeacon of Oxford,
by Petronilla de Blecchesdon and her daughters Albreda and Margaret
of the land in St. Mary's parish given them by master Martin. Ralf to pay
yearly to Thomas the goldsmith of Oxford and his heirs for all services 32d.
For the grant Ralf gave them 16 silver marks in the presence
of the full portmoot at Oxford.  (c. 1215-1223)
Carta Petronille de Blecchendon' de quadam terra que iacet inter terram
que fuit Hugonis de Sancto Germano et terram que fuit Rogeri de Mara.
Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Petronilla de Blecchesdone et ego
Albreda et ego Margareta filie eiusdem Petronille dedimus et concessimus
et hac presenti carta mea confirmauimus domino Radulfo quondam officiali
magistri I(ohannis) de Tynemoua archidiaconi Oxoniesis totam terram apud
Oxon' quam magister Martinus nobis dederat in uico Sancte Marie scilicet
totam illam terram cum pertinenciis que iacet inter terram que fuit
Hugonis de Sancto Germano et terram que fuit Rogeri de Mara cementarii.
Habend' et tenend' libere et quiete ab omni exaccione seculari ei et illis quibus
ipsam dare vel assignare uoluerit eciam uiris religiosis si uelit.  Reddendo inde
singulis annis xxxijd.  Thome aurifabro de Oxonia et heredibus suis pro
omnibus seruiciis scilicet xvjd.  in annunciacione domini et xvjd.  in festo
Sancti Michaelis.  Et nos (ect. Warranty clause).  Pro hac autem concessione
et confirmacione dedit nobis dictus Radulfus xvj marcas argenti coram pleno
portimot apud Oxon'.  In huius autem rei testimonio ego Petronilla et ego
Albreda et ego Margareta presenti carte sigilla nostra appendimus.
Hiis testibus Thoma filio Edwini maiore Oxoniense   Iordano de Bristoll'
Willelmo Crampe  Ricardo cultellario  Willelmo Dosier'  Iordano Cynser
Iohanne Pady. Thoma Feiteplace

Tunney, John
Tynney, Richard
List & Index Society, [England], Chancery Patent Rolls, 23 - 29 Elizabeth I,
(C. 66/A.D. 1198 - 1270), Vol. 141, Index to Grantees -
Tunney, John, A.D. 1218, m. 4d
Tynney, Richard, A.D. 1218, m. 20

Gillibertus filius Tunny, from Selden Society, [England], Vol. 56, published 1937,
Rolls of the Justices in Eyre, being The Rolls of Pleas and Assizes for Yorkshire
in 3 Henry III (A.D. 1218-1219), page 363, # 1005.
"Gillibertus filius Tunny" (Gilbert son of Tunny) appeals Richard son of Eskill
that he in the peace of the lord king robbed him of 1 cow, 1 cap, and 1 cloak.
Richard comes and denies the peace of the lord king and the robbery.
And since previously he alleged felony in his appeal and now does not,
it is adjudged that the appeal is null and he is in mercy for a false appeal.
Let him be taken into custody.

Tin', Simon de, from Selden Society, [England], Vol. 59, published 1940,
Rolls of the Justices in Eyre, Being the Rolls of Pleas and Assizes
for Gloucestershire, Warwickshire and Staffordshire, A.D. 1221, 1222,
pages 68-69, Civil Pleas at Gloucester, A.D. 1221, # 177,
Novel disseisin whether William de Derneford', Walter the forester,
Godfrey the miller, Rannulf son of Martin, Aldith of Oridge,
and Agnes of Oridge unjustly and without judgment have disseized
Henry of Corse and Lucy his wife of their common pasture in Corse
which belongs to their free tenement in the same village after the last,
etc.  William comes and willingly agrees to the assize.  The others
have not come and therefore are in mercy for default.
The jurors say that William and the others have so disseized them as the writ
says and after the term.  Therefore it is adjudged that they have their seisin
and and the others be in mercy.  Precept to the sheriff.  The jurors first said
that they were not disseized and afterwards admitted that they were.  Therefore,
they are in mercy for their false statement, namely Nicholas de Hasting',
William le parker,
Adam of Pitbrooke, Arnald of Ashleworth,
William of the weir, John of
Evington, Geoffrey of Marwent, and
Simon de Tin'
.  Damages, half a mark by pledge of Richard de Mucegros,
who is likewise surety for the amercement.  [Note: Simon is a given name
associated with many Biblical Jewish personages.]

There is historical evidence, as noted on a seated figurine made of tin
[etc.], dug up at Bowden Moor, Lanlivery, [England] presently dated to
belong to the time of Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans
(A.D. 1209-1272). It indicates Jewish merchant defiance to King Richard
in Hebrew characters tentatively interpreted as "Rapacious Eagle" &
"Jehovah is our King". This asserts that Jehovah was the true King
of the Jews.  By 28 July 1232, a substantial Jewish community
was located in Ireland, as letters to the Jews in Ireland,
to be intentive to Peter des Rivall, were issued.

Tyney, Phillip, born about 1246, in England.

Tena, Sancho of
The Templars in the Corona de Aragon [a region of northeastern Spain],
(London: Oxford University Press, 1973)
Under lists of Officials, is found Sancho of Tena,
March 1255 through February 1258 (with Boquineni).

Records of Early English Drama, Somerset, [England],
Vol. 1, The Records, page 423; Vol. 2, page 1033, Latin Glossary,
teneo, -ere, -ui, -tum v tr literally to hold: 1. to hold a meeting,
court session, or other event, page 423, lines 5 and 9, from:
Diocese of Bath and Wells, circa A.D. 1258, Statutes for the Diocese of Bath
and Wells, Vatican Library, [Rome, Italy]: MS ottob. lat. 742 f 110v cols 1-2*
. . .
[5] quod placita secularia non teneantur in ecclesiis uel in cimiteriis. Rubrica
. . .
[9] diebus dominicis uel aliis publica habeantur mercata ut placita teneantur
. . .

Tenny de Pyrii, from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series,
[England], Vol. 12, page 83, . . . Yorks Inquisitions . . .
Killinge Farm . . . Inq. p.m., (44 Hen. III, No. 26.),
Writ dated at Westminster, 1 August, 44th year [A.D. 1260]

Manser son of Aaron, the Jew
Tinnewinneshell, Richard de
Catalogue of Ancient Deeds, [England], Vol. III, Tinnewinneshell, D 276,
dated 23 Nov, 45 Henry III (A.D. 1260-1261),
Bond by Richard de Tinnewinneshell, of the county of Bedford,
[England], to Manser son of Aaron, the Jew, for 10 marks, to be paid
at Midsummer next.  [Research Note:  Richard de Tinnewinneshell
appears to be a wealthy Irish Jewish Merchant residing in the county
of Bedfordshire, England in A.D. 1260-1261.  Shel or Shell in Irish
is a variation of siol, meaning: seed [of the body], generation, posterity.
As noted in The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places, Vol. II,
published in 1912, by P. W. Joyce, LL. D., one of the Commissioners
for the Publication of the Ancient Laws of Ireland, page 206,
the common word for milk is baine (bonnia, banny),
and it occurs in names in such forms as wanny, vanny, winny.
Thus: Tinne + (milk) + (generation or posterity). Jeremiah,
a book of Holy Scripture, states in Chapter 11, verses 4-5, that I
(the Lord God of Israel), commanded your fathers in the day
that I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt . . . to give them
a land flowing with milk and honey (a sweet, yellowish or brownish fluid);
the mark of a Jew.  As noted before, a
Jewish lamp with menorah has been
found in Bedfordshire, England, approximately dated the 4th century A.D.]

Tyne, Hugone de, from History of Northumberland, [England],
Vol. 1, page 139n, A.D. 1266

Tinnere, Alexander le, from Patent Rolls - Henry III, [England],
A.D. 1216 to 1272, Vol. VI, A.D. 1272 . . . July 30 . . . Westminster
. . . Alexander le Tinnere, merchant of St. Edmunds . . .

Tynnur (?), William , from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record
Series, [England], Vol. 12, page 141, . . . " . . . William Tynnur (?)
holds half . . . of land in the same manner, for 2d . . ."
. . . dated I Edw I  #31 . . .  A.D. 1274

By A.D. 1275, King Edward I of England, in the statutum de Judeismo,
stipulated the color of the badge was yellow in color or of two shades,
white and red. Since orange, or Tenne, is any of a group of colors
between red and yellow in hue, of medium lightness and moderate
saturation, the mark of disgrace or Tenne in Heraldry appears to be
"the mark of a Jew" used elsewhere.  This is shown in word usage
as follows: From
The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain
and Ireland During the Middle Ages, Vol. 14,
Political Poems and Songs Relating to English History,
"Glossary and Index of Obsolete English words",
is listed:
tene -    grief, sorrow, affliction; i, 71; ii, 125
tene -    to afflict, to grieve; i, 224
tenet -   afflicts
tenyd -  injured, hurt; i, 395
tyne -    to lose; i, 88
tint -     lost

Tene, Robert de, from Calendar of Close Rolls - Edward I, [England],
A.D. 1272 to 1307, Vol. I, p. 320, dated 17 Nov 1276 - Westminster -
. . . "Robert de Tene and John Corbyn and brother Nicholas de Bredon,
imprisoned at Warwick for the death of William le Hare, wherewith they
are charged, have letters to the sheriff of Warwick to bail them . . ."

A writ issued in 1283 was sent to the Sheriff of Cornwall, [England] to go
to all the chests of the chirographers of the Jews. The Jews were involved
in the international metals market as verified in Jewish Historical Studies,
[England], Vol. 32, (1993), Jewish entries from the Patent Rolls, A.D. 1272
to 1292. Under date of 6 February 1283 Rhuddlan, a Commission was
to enquire touching certain Jews who are dealing with foreign merchants
. . . in false sheets of tin silvered outside, etc.
Also, under the date of 5 August 1285 Woolmer . . .
buying sheets of silver from the Jews in England, etc.

Tin, from the Oxford English Dictionary, is to cover (with tin);
to solder; to can; to seal up.  It is: one of the well-known metals,
nearly approaching silver in whiteness and lustre, highly malleable
and taking a high polish; used in the manufacture of articles of block tin;
in the formation of alloys, as bronze, pewter, etc., and on account of its
resistance to oxidation, for making tin-plate and lining culinary
and other iron vessels.  Thus, tincture has to do with dye,
as a tub was usually 'tinned';
tin-kling with a bell of 'tinned' iron, and
tine or tyne: to shut the door, mouth, to enclose;
to furnish with tines or prongs; to separate;
to branch out; the branch or separation.
To tin-ct was used to imbue or impregnate with some substance or quality.
Also, in the French language, Tine: a tub or water cask;
also, in the Italian language, Tinnire: to sound (trumpets).

Antiquaries Journal, [England], Index Vol. 1-20,
Vol. 11, page 130, the Tenison Psalter, of date A.D. 1284

Tene, from Calendar of Documents - Ireland, Vol. 3, A.D. 1285 to 1292,
. . . "The bishop rode to Tene, went to the treasurer . . ."

The Hebrew alphabet letter "T"
The letter "T", called TAW, is the 22nd and the last letter of the Hebrew
alphabet.  TAWNY is the Jewish color, appearing whitish-brown,
as of a she-assZechariah 9: 9, states: "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion;
shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just,
and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal
of an ass." (Mark 11: 1-11, and Luke 19: 35-40 ". . . And they brought him
[the colt] to Jesus: and they cast their garments upon the colt, and they set
Jesus thereon . . .").  Tawer, from Selden Society, [England], Vol. 30,
published 1914, Select Bills in Eyre, A.D. 1292-1333, defined in Glossary,
page 162, as: Tawer (pp. 29, 139). One who taws or dresses leather,
the tanned hide of an animal, usually with the hair removed.  See the verb
'to taw' in the New English Dictionary.  Thus, the connection is shown
between the word, the color and the she-ass, in England, as it relates
to the Jews who had resided there. 
Rabbi Bernard Susser, author of
The Jews of South-West England, suggests: "One may gauge the extent
of the involvement of medieval English Jews with tin mining in Devon
by the steep decline in the Devon output of tin from 87 thousand weight
in A.D. 1291 to 38 thousand weight in A.D. 1296."  This decline has been
attributed to the expulsion of the Jews [from England], in A.D. 1290.

Tunne, Maude, from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series,
[England], Vol. 23, page 141, York Inquisitions-   A.D. 1292

Tunny, Robert, from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series,
[England], Vol. 121,
Tunny, Robert, q., page 97 (A.D. 1293)

Tunning, Robert, from Lists and Indexes, Great Britain Public Record Office,
Supplementary Series, No. XV, Index to Ancient Correspondence
of the Chancery and the Exchequer, Vol. 2, L-Z, published 1969,
page 487, in conjunction with: Lists and Indexes,
Great Britain Public Record Office, No. XV,
List of Ancient Correspondence of the Chancery and Exchequer,
published 1968, Vol. 29, page 444, # 145.
[Most of the letters in this volume lack the name of either writer or recipient.]
# 145.  ---- to ----: he has received the appointment of attorneys by Joan wife
of William de Valence in a suit against the king.     [Dated: Spring, A.D. 1294]
. . . Tunning, Robert, attorney of J. de Valence.

Tena, Peter of
The Templars in the Corona de Aragon [a region of northeastern Spain]
(London: Oxford University Press, 1973), p. 44. A. J. Forey relates that
in A.D. 1295, Gayeta, the wife of Peter of Rueda, provided in her will
for the celebrating of daily masses for a year. Peter of Tena, by the terms
of his wife's will, was obliged to see that 2,000 masses were said for her
soul by a chaplain provided by the Templars in Zaragoza."

Tuny, Rob., from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series, [England],
Vol. 31, page 23, Yorks Inquisitions, A.D. 1295

Tene, Isabel
Tene, Walter de, from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series,
[England], Vol. 121, page 161, A.D. 1296
Tene, Walter de, and Isabel his wife,
d. (Walter de Teye . . . of the Manor of Kayso . . .)

Teny, Agnet, from Sussex Record Society, [England],
Vol. 10, page 32, Subsidy in A.D. 1296,
Teny, Agnet . . . Hundr de Ristondenn - Sussex

Tunny, Laurencius, fil.,
from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series, [England], Vol. 16,
page 5, Yorkshire Lay Subsidies of the Reign of Edward I. (A.D. 1297)
Oustewyke Laurencius filius Tunny habet; bovem, precium vs;
iiij quart avene, precium iiijs; j jumentum precium ijs vjd ;
fenum vjd Summa bonorum, xijs. Nona, xvjd.

Tene, Henry de, from A Lincolnshire Assize Roll for [A.D.] 1298, [England],
(P.R.O. Assize Roll No. 505), The Publications of the Lincoln Record Society,
published 1944, Vol. 36, page cvi [Introduction],
. . . John Gode of Boston [Lincolnshire, England] was in A.D. 1298 empanelled
on a jury which had to determine whether a certain Henry de Tene, a merchant
of Brabant, [province of Belgium in which is situated the capital Brussels], was
trying to evade paying the king's custom on 13 dickers of hides which he bought
at Fleet [Hampshire, England] and wished to send away thence.  Henry's defence
was that he was sending the hides to Yarmouth [Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England]
for export, and was going to pay the dues there. The jurors upheld him over this.

John the Tinner, from Report and Transactions Devonshire Association,
[England], Vol. 91, page 117,
John the Tinner is listed under date of 01 July 1301

Tyn, Galfrid.
Tun, Hugo
Tunay, Rob.
Tynay, Will.
Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series, [England], Vol. 21,
Yorkshire Lay Subsidies Edward I   xxx mo  (A.D. 1301-1302)
Tun, Hugo fil., page 60:     (De Hugone filio Tun- Thorneton')
Tunay, Rob., page 9:         (De Roberto Tunay- Helayghe)
Tyn, Galfrid. fil., page 21:  (De Galfrido filio Tyn- Byrscoyg')
Tynay, Will., page 18:        (De Willelmo Tynay- vs jd q.- Manefelde)

Tynten, John de, the elder
Tynteyn, Tynteine, Tyntene, Tynten, Tinetyn, John de, the younger,
from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Edward II, [England], A.D. 1307 to 1327,
Vol. I, pages 243, 253, 263, 368-369, 420
[Research Note:  John de Tynten, the elder,
appears in List & Index Society, [England], Vol. 26, published 1967,
Chancery Miscellanea Vol. III., Bundles 33-57, in Bundle 52,
for Cornwall, File # 2, on page 242, # 62,
with date of writ given as 12 Hen. VI [A.D. 1433-1434], for:
Fine, 14 Edward II [A.D. 1320-1321]
Manor of Tynten [in Cornwall, England]; John de Tynten, the elder,
complainant, and Nicholas de Chaylon, chaplain, deforciant. . . .]

Tentini, Cerbius, from Calendar of the Close Rolls - Edward II, [England],
A.D. 1307 to 1327, Vol. IV, page 607

Tene, Walter, from Calendar Justiciary Rolls - Ireland,
Vol. 3, A.D. 1308-1314, page 209,
. . . Yet of pleas of the Crown and Delivery of Gaol at Drogheda
before the said Justiciar, Day and year as Above (Meath)
A.D. 09 May 1311
. . . Walter Tene, juror(s) summoned, come not.
Therefore let them be in mercy . . .

Records of Early English Drama, Somerset, [England],
Vol. 1, The Records, page 177; Vol. 2, page 1033, Latin Glossary,
teneo, -ere, -ui, -tum v tr literally to hold: 2. to hold (land)
by rendering service to the lord of a manor, page 177, line 24, etc.,
from: North Curry, A.D. 1314, Liber Albus II WCL, ff 55v-6*
(Custumal of the tenants of North Curry church)
. . .
Iohannes de Muridene tenet I Mesuagium cum curtilagio I ferdellum terre cum
. . . 

Tenu, William de, from The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain
and Ireland During the Middle Ages, Vol. 62, #3, The Register of
Richard de Kellawee . . .Bp. of Durham, A.D. 1314-1316, page 282

Tynyng, Simon, from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series,
[England], Vol. 78, Wakefield Court Rolls
Tynyng, Simon, page 23,  9 Edward II, A.D. 1315

Tinney, Tinhay, Tuneum, from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Edward II,
[England], A.D. 1307 to 1327, with Vol. II, A.D. 1313 to 1317, page 598,
Tinney, Tinhay, Tuneum, in Lifton parish, Co. Devon [England],
10 Nov 1316, York - Membrane 8d . . . John Wyth of Tinney (de Tuneo),
John le Webbe of Tinney . . . etc.

Teny, Thomas, from The Index Library, [England], published 1908,
Vol. 37, Abstracts of Wiltshire Inquisitiones Post Mortem, returned
into the Court of Chancery in the reigns of Henry III, Edward I,
and Edward II, A.D. 1242 - 1326, page 408, Edward Burnel,
Extent made before the King's escheator at Warministre, 21st January,
10 Edward II [A.D. 1316], upon the true value of the knight's fees
and advowsons of Churches which were of Edward Burnel,
lately deceased, in co. Wilts, on the day that he died,
and which by reason of his death are taken into the King's hand,
by the oath of Robert le Boor, John de Tynhude, William atte Halle,
of Bradeford, William de Gatecoumbe, John de Birton, John Manger,
John Bernard, Geoffrey Maudut, John Dalewaye,
John le Chipenham, Thomas Teny, and John de Bradeford,
who say that
     The said Edward Burnel had on the day that he died in the said county
the advowson of the Church of Fennysutton, and it is worth per annum,
according to its true value, 30 pound.

Tunne, Margaret, from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series,
[England], Vol. 78, Wakefield Court Rolls
Tunne, Margaret, page 60, for dry wood; 9 Edward II, A.D. 1316

Tyny, Thomas, from:
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society,
[England], Vol. 1, page 99, Abstracts of Feet of Fines (Ed I & Ed II),
Tyny, Thomas, listed as def. in Edward II, A.D. 1318 . . .
1 messuage, 30 acres of land and 4 acres of meadow in Stupelasshton

Tynne, John, from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Edward II,
[England], A.D. 1307 to 1327, Vol. III, page 312,
15 Feb 1319, York - Membrane 26 . . . " . . . has letters nominating
Peter de Lymeseye and John Tynne his attorneys for one year " . . .

Tyny, Thos., from Wiltshire Magazine, [England],
Vol. 36, page 444,
Thos. Tyny listed as a Witness, under date of 05 Nov 1321

Tenny, William, son of William Tenny, from:
Calendar of Patent Rolls - Edward III, [England], A.D. 1327 to 1377,
Vol. I, page 121, dated 13 June 1327 - York membrane 15 -
"William son of William Tenny of Piddose Burton for the death of
Thomas Gawele of Hoton in Holdernesse, killed before the coronation."

Tiny, Thomas, from Calendar of Patent Rolls -
Edward III, [England], A.D. 1327 to 1377, Vol. I, page 239,
dated 28 Feb 1328 - York
Pardon of Thomas Tiny for acquiring for life, the bedelry of the hundred
of Wheruellesdoun, and the Keepership of the woods of Ayshton and
Edenton, from the abbess of Romeseye, who holds the same in chief,
and for entering thereon, whthout licence; and licence for him to retain
the same. By fine of 1/2 mark.  Wilts.
[Mentioned also in A History of Wiltshire, Vol. V, published 1957,
page 67, In A.D. 1328-9, Thomas Tiny was pardoned for acquiring
the bedelry of Whorwellsdown hundred from the Abbess of Romsey
without licence.{20} Abbrev. Rot. Orig. (Rec. Com.), ii. 25]

Tyne (Tine), Alan, from Calendar of Patent Rolls -
Edward III, [England], A.D. 1327 to 1377, Vol. I, page 405,
dated 06 July 1329 - Guildford -
Confirmation of the following grants in mortmain of lands and rents
in Beverley for the fabric of the Church of St. Mary in that town: -
" . . . out of the land and house which Alan Tyne held in fee,
from Robert son of Inetta; " . . .

Tene, Alice
Tene, Wm de
Some Account of Colton and of the De Wasteney's Family,
[Staffordshire, England], page 45,
Tene, Wm de, and Alice, wife of, Colton in the A.D. 1330's

Tyny, Walter, from The Index Library, [England], Abstracts
of Wiltshire Inquisitiones Post Mortem returned into the Court
of Chancery in the Reign of King Edward III, A.D. 1327 - 1377,
published 1914, Vol. 48, page 58, John de Kyueleie,
Inquisition made at Stepelashstone before the King's escheator,
28th April, 4 Edward III [A.D. 1331], by the oath of
William de Testewode, John de Langeford, Walter Attewode,
Richard Michel, Roger Treyberge, Walter Tyny, John Totyn,
John le Palmere, John de Baa, William le Zong, Thomas le Clerk,
and John Oysel, who say that . . .
[Research Note:
A Thomas Tyny is listed as def. in Edward II, A.D. 1318 . . .
1 messuage, 30 acres of land and 4 acres of meadow in Stupelasshton.]

The Wiltshire Tax List of A.D. 1332, [England], edited by
D. A. Crowley, published 1989, Wiltshire Record Society,
pages 50-52,
Steeple Ashton (Stepulastone)
John Tutyn (See A.D. 1331 entry for John Totyn)
. . .
Christine Tyny           2s    8d
. . .
Walter Tyny               8s
. . .
William Tyny             5s    4d
. . .
West Ashton (Westastone)
. . .
Henry Tyny               5s    6d
. . .
John Palmere (See A.D. 1331 entry for John le Palmere)
. . .
Thomas Tyny            6s    2 1/4 d
. . .
Tinhead (Tynhyde)
John de Tynhyde       8s    4d
. . .
Edington (Edynto . . .)
. . .
John le Teyn              2s    6d
. . .

Tyny, Henry, from Wiltshire Magazine, [England],
Vol. 37, pages 4 and 5, mention is made of:
. . . 1 a(cre) in the fields of West Ashton . . .
which Henry Tyny hold for the term of his life . . .
(undated . . . about A.D. 1300's)
(See listing above in A.D. 1332 Wiltshire Tax List.)

Tine, Edwardo de, from Surrey Record Society, [England],
Vol. 11, page 33, listed in:
Surrey taxation Returns Villata de Bechesworth,
The 1332 Assessment (Exchequer, K. R., Subsidies 18414)

Tymyng, Thomas, from Calendar of Patent Rolls -
Edward III, [England], A.D. 1327 to 1377, Vol. II, page 346,
dated 12 May 1332 - Woodstock - Membrane 34d
" . . . Thomas Tymyng, . . . and others, coming armed to Croyland . . ."

Tynneslewe, Roger de, from Calendar of Patent Rolls -
Edward III, [England], A.D. 1327 to 1377, Vol. II, pages 1, 13;
keeper of hays in Sherwood forest.  [Appears as an example of: The Tineman,
Sax., in old forest law, was a petty officer of the forest, one who had the care
of vert and venison by night, and performed other servile duties.]  Tynneslowe
is mentioned in Selden Society, [England], Year Books of Edward II; Vol. III,
3 Edward II, A.D. 1309-1310, published 1905, page 145, Tynneslowe {2}
is modern Tinsley, near Sheffield, West Riding, Yorkshire, England.

Tenne, Wm. atte, from Kent Records,
Documents illustrative of Medieval Kentish Society [England],
published 1964 by the Kent Archaeological Society,
Records Publication Committee, Vol. XVIII, page 109,
The Kent Lay Subsidy of A.D. 1334/1335
Wm. atte Tenne     3s.   6d.

Tenyty, John, from Lists and Indexes, Great Britain Public Record Office,
Supplementary Series, No. XV, Index to Ancient Correspondence
of the Chancery and the Exchequer, Vol. 2, L-Z, published 1969,
page 456, in conjunction with: Lists and Indexes,
Great Britain Public Record Office, No. XV,
List of Ancient Correspondence of the Chancery and Exchequer,
published 1968, Vol. 37, page 579, # 163.
List of men at arms with the earl of Warwick.  [c. 26 July 1339].
Formerly sewn to no. 162 above.
Tenyty, John

Tenny, Nicholas, from Calendar of Patent Rolls -
Edward III, [England], A.D. 1327 to 1377, Vol. IV, page 231,
dated 30 Oct 1339, Membrane 25 - Langley, "John atte Bregge
of Pideborton, for the death of Nicholas Tenny"  By p.s.

Tyny, William, from Calendar of Patent Rolls -
Edward III, [England], A.D. 1327 to 1377, Vol. IV, pages 352 to 355,
dated, A.D. 1339 time period, in Somerset and Devonshire [England],
" . . . and William Tyny, suspected of breaking the close, and houses
of the said Alan" (de Cherteton, Knight) "at Wytenham, co. Somerset,
and taking away 9 oxen and 154 sheep, with other goods . . ."
ALSO: at Northmolton, co. Devon . . . (a similar complaint)

The Edington Cartulary, edited by Janet H. Stevenson,
Wiltshire Record Society, published 1987, Vol. 42, page 59, # 201,
[ff. 77v.-78] 29 Apr 1340. Quitclaim, with warranty, from Martin, brother
of William Hourdy, to John Talebot of Troubrigge of 1 virgate in Tenhyde
which John had be demise of Joan, wife of the said William.
Witnesses: Richard Walwayn, Richard Dauntesye, William atte Purye,
Walter de Edyndon, John atte Welle, Thomas Tyny, John le Theyn,
Stephen de Kyngeston.  Troubrigge, Sat. after St. Mark, 14 Edward III

Tenny, Nicholas, from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Edward III, [England],
A.D. 1327 to 1377, Vol. V, page 59,
dated 12 Nov 1340 - Reading   Membrane 20 -
"Exemplification under the seal now in use of letters patent,
dated 30 October, 13 Edward III, pardoning John atte Brigge
of Pideseburton for the death of Nicholas Tenny."

Tini Beg, A. D. 1340/1, mentioned as part of the KHANS,
the Line of Batu'ids (The Blue Horde), in south Russia
and western Kipchak. [See: John Andrew Boyle,
The Successors of Genghis Khan,
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1971).
Martha Ross, Rulers and Governments of the World,
(London: Bowker, 1980, a reprint of 1978), Vol. I,
Earliest Times to A.D. 1491, p. 235, under the title:
"THE GOLDEN HORDE", that Territory comprised as part
of present-day USSR, with the capital established at Old Sarai
(now Sarai-Batu) and then New Sarai (now Sarai-Berke).]

Tyny, see: Teny
Tyny, Joan
Tyny, and see: Tony, John
Tyny, Nicholas
Tyny, Thomas
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, [England],
Vol. 29, pages 159, 288, 289, A.D. 1344 - 18 Edward III,
. . . and of the meadow and pasture, which Thomas Tyny
and Joan his wife and Nicholas their son hold for term of life . . .

Tenny, Nicholas, from Calendar of Patent Rolls -
Edward III, [England], A.D. 1327 to 1377, Vol. VI, page 218,
dated 09 Mar 1344 - Westminster - Membrane 30 -
"Pardon to John atte Brigge of Pidse Burton, imprisoned in the Marshalsea
for the death of Nicholas Tenny, 'parker' of Brustewyk, as it appears
by the record of William Scot and his fellows, justices of the King's Bench,
that he killed him in self-defence."

Tennere (Tynnere), Abraham le,
Tenne, John de
Black Prince's Register,
[Edward, 1330-1376, Prince of Wales and son of Edward III],
lists, in Part I and Part II, the following:
Tenne, John de, attorney, Westminster [England],
Part I, A.D. 1346 to 1348, on page 110,
August 8, A.D. 1347, Westminster, Folio 101,
Order to John Moveroun, the prince's yeoman and constable
of the castle of Launceveton, --as the prince, at the request
of the earl of Arundell, has granted at bail the body of Master
Howel ap Gronou to Sir Richard Talbot, Sir Rees ap Griffith,
Rees ap Madok of Hendor and David ap Madok of Hendor,
who have undertaken, body for body, to cause him to come
when and where the prince will, on fifteen days notice,
to stand to law, --to release him to them at bail, and deliver him
to William Hawardyn and John de Tenne, their attorneys,
by indenture, warning the latter in the presence of good witnesses
to have his body before Sir William de Shareshull and his fellows at
the sessions to be held in North Wales on Monday after Michaelmas next.
Tennere (Tynnere), Abraham le,
Part II: The present volume is the second installment of a Calendar
of four registers . . . relating to the prince's affairs in the Duchy of Cornwall . . .
pp. 110-111,
. . . with reference to the enclosed petition which has been handed
to the prince by Abraham le Tennere of Cornewaille concerning
some tin-workings of his in those parts . . .
. . . Petition from Abraham le Tynnere of Cornewaille shewing
that he has six places proper for digging tin, to wit, . . .
. . . to send a letter to William de Spridlynton ordering him
to find by inquisition what damage and loss the prince
has suffered by the disturbance of Abraham le Tennere
and other workers in the mine of Glen, . . .

Rabbi Bernard Susser, The Jews of South-West England,
published 1993, information concerning the rise and decline
of their Medieval and Modern Communities. Rabbi Susser
marks the Tinney surname as Jewish. In his commentary,
he states that as late as A.D. 1342, the name of at least one
tin mine owner, Abraham the Tinner, who owned a number
of stream works in A.D. 1342 and employed several hundred men,
"suggests that he was of Jewish origin".  On the other hand,
Edward MacLysaght, in The Surnames of Ireland, suggests
Tiney, Tinney, Tyney as variants of Mac Atinney in Donegal.
Mac Ashinagh: Mac an tSionnaigh (sionnach, fox), now usually
called Fox.  It is sometimes abbreviated phonetically to MacAtinney,
which is an Armagh family, a branch of which migrated to Mayo,
and it is suggested it applies to the Tinney surname which is found
in Donegal.  However, P. W. Joyce, LL. D., one of the Commissioners
for the Publication of the Ancient Laws of Ireland, wrote:
The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places, Vol. I published
in 1910. He mentions on page 216 that Teine is the general word for fire,
and in modern names it is usually found forming the termination tinny.
Additionally, Richard Smith, in soc.genealogy.medieval conversations,
dated Mar. 1, 2018, opined that [The Irish Gaelic word for fox is spelt "sionnach".
"sinnoch" doesn't conform to the rule, caol le caol agus leathan le leathan.
The genitive form after a definite article would be "an tsionnaigh" meaning
"of the fox". If the surname really does derive from this, and I've no idea
whether the name might have several independent origins, the surname
will likely have been "Mac an tSionnaigh": "son of the fox".]

In the earliest times in Ireland, as elsewhere, beacon fires were in common use,
for the guidance of travellers or to alarm the country in any sudden emergency.
The spots where signal or festival fires used to be lighted are still, in many cases,
indicated by the names, though in almost all these places the custom has,
for ages, fallen into disuse.  One of the names used was teine [tinne].
It is found in:

Kiltinny near Coleraine, the wood of the fire;
Duntinny in Donegal, (dun, a fort),
thus the Donegal Tinney "of the
fire" at the fort;
Mullaghtinny near Clogher in Tyrone, the summit of the fire;
Tennyphobble near Granard in Longford, Teine-phobail,
fire of the parish or congregation,
plainly indicates some festive assembly round a
Cloghaunnatinny, in the parish of Kilmurry Clare,
was anciently, and is still called in Irish,

Clochan-bile-teine, the stepping-stones of the fire tree, from a large tree
which grew near the crossing, under which May
fires used to be lighted;
Creeve, in the parish of Ardnurcher, Westmeath, anciently called:
Craebh-teine [Creeve-tinne: Four Mast.], the branchy tree of the fire.
The plural of teine is teinte [tinte], as in:
Clontinty, near Glanworth, Cork, the meadow of the fires;
Mollynadinta, in the parish of Rossinver, Leitrim, i.e.,
Mullaigh-na-dteinte, the summit of the fires.
This word, with the English plural added, gives names to Tents, (i.e. fires),
three townlands in Cavan, Fermanagh, and Leitrim; and the English
is substituted for the Irish plural in Tinnies in Valentia Island.
The diminutive is found in Clontineen in Westmeath,
and in Tullantintin in Cavan, the meadow and the hill of the little

The Irish Tinney line as an anglicized version of a Celtic phrase
meaning "son of the fox", is a far cry from the tin mines of Cornwall,
unless one considers the need for secrecy prevalent throughout time
by Jews, in hiding their real identity, due to intense anti-Semitism
over time.  However, Conservation of Irish Habitats and Species does
indicate that the red fox is Ireland’s only member of the Canidae family.
They are easily recognizable by their small doglike appearance.
Coloration consists of a reddish to brown tint with a long bushy tail
often with a white tip.  As a madra rua, in maturing, the coat colour
changes from its original dark brown to foxy red.  In Irish, red fur,
is rua (roo-uh),
and dyed or painted red is called dearg (jar-ug).

As noted before, The Kassel Manuscript of Bede's
'Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum' and its old English material
by T. J. M. Van Els, published 1972, mentions Tunna was Abbot of
the monastery he had founded at Tunnacestir.  When his brother Imma
was severely wounded in the Battle of the Trent in A.D. 679, he went out
to search for him.  Imma is a short form of compound personal names.
It has been suggested that the base may be connected with an Old Norse
imr 'wolf'.  Albert M. Hyamson, F.R.His.S., A History of the Jews in England,
(1908), relates that "Resemblances have been traced between the Hebrew
and Cornish languages; and it has been pointed out that Jewish names
were once common among the inhabitants of Cornwall."  [There were Biblical
names in Cornwall during the Saxon period.]  Samson was an Israelite Judge,
dealing with foxes; from Hebrew Shimshon, "like the sun"; [compare
Mac Ashinagh]; from shemesh, "sun".  There is also the discovery of a brick
made by the Romans, found during excavations in Mark Lane, in London,
circa A.D. 1650. The brick, which was the keystone of an arched vault
full of burnt corn, bore on one side a raised representation of Samson
driving the foxes into a field of corn.

Thus, as stated before, it appears that this idea of the source of all light
has also followed down traditionally in the Tinia variations noted by
Edward O'Reilly in An Irish-English Dictionary, published in Dublin, Ireland,
in A.D. 1864.  Here, the 16th letter of the Irish alphabet is listed as:
Tinne, a. meaning "wonderful, strange"; adv. meaning almost.
Tinne, s. meaning "a chain; the name of the letter 'T'."
"T"  is the 16th letter of the Irish alphabet
and ranked among the hard consonants.  Also,
tin, s.f., a beginning, fire;
[as in Cornish Tan: fire; Cornish Tehan: a firebrand; to light; kindle];
a gross, corpulent, fat [as in Cornish Tenn: rude; rustic];
also, tender [as in Cornish Tyner: tender],
[as in Cornish Tene: sucking (too young to be weaned;
Cornish Tena: to suck)];
thin [as in Cornish Tanau: thin, slender, small, lean].
tine, s.f., fire, a link;
[the link, the constant attachment there is betwixt the tongue
(which is the fire) of the eloquent, and the ears of the audience.]
tin or tion, v. to melt or dissolve, O'B.
tinn, adj., sick; inflection of teann, brave, etc.
[See: Antiquities, Historical and Monumental, of the County of Cornwall,
published 1769, by William Borlase, LL.D., F.R.S.,
pages 103, 106; also A Cornish-English Vocabulary.]

Tino Family
Public Life in Renaissance Florence, [Italy], by Richard C. Trexler,
published 1980, discusses the world of competition in Florence
during the Ritual of Celebration.  On page 274, mention is made
in A.D. 1358, [{203} AAF, Benefizio . . . Tani, f. 34v],
that when the Bishop of Florence entered the Cathedral,
the provost of the chapter attempted to help him sit down
and called out: "You are witness that I, in the name of the chapter
of Florence, put the lord bishop in the chair.  You ser Tino notary,
make a record of it for me!"  Ser Tino belonged to the legal profession
of notaries in the city of Florence, Italy. As stated heretofore, The Jews,
via Italian trade, kept contact with England well after A.D. 1315, when
the Florentines and others in Italy, had an almost complete control
ver tin trade. The New Century Italian Renaissance Encyclopedia,
edited by Catherine B. Avery, published 1972, lists on pages 909-910,
Tino di Camaino, Sculptor and architect; born at Siena, circa A.D. 1285.
[As stated before, Rocca d'Orcia or Tintinnano, was purchased by Siena
in A.D. 1250 and sold to the Salimbeni in A.D. 1274.] Tino di Camaino
died at Naples, A.D. 1337.  He was the son of the sculptor and architect
Camaino di Crescentino. Tino di Camaino built the monument
in the Cathedral located at Florence, Italy, of Bishop Antonio d'Orso,
who died in A.D. 1321.  Sertini was one of the prominent family surnames
in Florence, circa A.D. 1400.  [See: Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. XXVIII,
No. 4, Winter 1975, The Florentine Reggimento in the Fifteenth Century,
by Dale Kent, pages 575-638. Sertini is listed on page 637,
in A.D. 1391 (1), A.D. 1411 (2), A.D. 1433 (4), A.D. 1444 (1),
A.D. 1449 (2) and A.D. 1453 (1).  The history of Florence
was essentially the history of its leading families.]

Tyn, Thomas, from Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, [England],
Vol. 10, page 191,
Thomas Tyn listed in A.D. 1360

Tennyson, John, from Selden Society, [England],
Select Cases from the Coroners' Rolls A.D. 1265-1413 . . .,
published 1896, Vol. 9, page 114, Holderness, Yorkshire, (Keyingham)
"They also say that on Monday [28 June 1361] next after the feast of
the Nativity of St. John the Baptist in the thirty-fifth year of King Edward
[that] Maud Bochard stole at Welwick two quarters of corn and two
quarters of barley worth 13s. 4d. belonging to John Tennyson of Welwick."

Teny, Thomas, purveyor to the household,
from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Edward III, [England], A.D. 1327 to 1377,
Vol. XIV, page 97, dated 10 Feb 1368 - Westminster - Membrane 19 -
"William de Hungerford; to buy great beasts, oxen, cows, pigs and other
things pertaining to the office of buyer for the kitchen of the household
(the King's)" . . . John de Conyngesby, 'sergeant', William de Hungerford,
yeoman, and Thomas Teny, as above.

Tyny, Thomas, from The Index Library, [England],
Abstracts of Wiltshire Inquisitiones Post Mortem
returned into the Court of Chancery in the Reign of King Edward III,
A.D. 1327 - 1377, published 1914, Vol. 48, page 347,
John Coule, chaplain, and others,
Inquisition made at Uphauen, 23rd September, 42 Edward III,
[A.D. 1368], before the abovesaid escheator, by the oath of
John Neuman, William Treberge, John Daubeneye, Robert Iuet,
Thomas Tyny, Roger Coterugge, Roger Northfolk,
John Honybrygge, Thomas Coterugg, William Neuman,
Nicholas Babbestoke, and Nicholas Frenshe, who say that . . .

Tynn, Thomas de, from Calendar of Papal Registers,
Vol. IV, A.D. 1362 to 1404, page 68,
10 Kal. July. Montefiascone (f 82.) A.D. 1368, [England],
"To Thomas de Tynn, [Benedictine] monk of St. Martin's, Battle.
Dispensation to him, as the son of a priest, to accept any office
or dignity of his order short of that of abbot."

Tyningham, Adam de, from The Papacy, Scotland and Northern England,
A.D. 1342-1378, by A. D. M. Barrell, published 1995, page 39,
Adam de Tyningham, dean of Aberdeen,
paid 100 florins for his prebend there in A.D. 1374

Tyny, Thomas, from Surrey Archaeological Collections, [England],
Vol. 42, page 115, A.D. 1375,
Tyny, Thomas, Vicar of Farnham,
inst 06 Sep 1375 "exchanged three weeks later . . ."
The History and Antiquities of the County of Surrey,
published 1814, Vol. III, page 165, lists this entry as:
John Edyndon, Archdeacon
Thomas Tynny
06 Sep 1375 {k} Idem, 64, a. [Wickh. I]
He [Thomas Tynny] resigned immediately for Compton near Winchester.

Tyny, Joan
Tyny, John
Somerset Record Society, [England],
Vol. 17, page 90, A.D. 1376/1377,
. . . Somerset Fines 50 Edward III . . .
. . . and a messuage and 15 acres of land and 5 acres of meadow
which John Tyny and Joan his wife held for their lives . . .

Tinney, Johanni, from:
Accounts Rendered by Papal Collectors in England,
(Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1968),
with Edgar B. Graves, Ed., pp. 363, 449, reports the accounts
of Arnald Garderii, A.D. 1371 to 1379, or Collectorie 12, fols. 143-267,
(account for the period from A.D. 1374 to 1378), wherein is named:
. . .
Item Johanni Tinney, presbytero Londoniensis dio-
cesis, de beneficio ecclesiastico et cetera prioris et
capituli ecclesie Norwicensis.

Tyny, Thomas, from The Canterbury and York Society, [England],
Vol. 18, page 7, A.D. 1379,
. . .; domino Thoma Tyiny, priore de Cogges, Lincolniensis diocesis; . . .

The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland
During the Middle Ages
, Vol. 41, #9 - - - Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden,
A.D. 1381 to 1394, "Glossary",
Tynde, Tyne (vb.) L. claudere, to close (a door), iv. 453
Tynynge (adj.) destructive, deadly (of poison), iv. 11
Tena, i. 402 -- an article of dress of the nature of a gown or coat.
[Research Note:  A tunic, in the Middle Ages, was a surcoat, a loose outer coat
or gown worn by a knight over his armor; tunic from Aramaic kittuna.]
Tinnipo, i. 236; to crow (of the cock) - - -  Perhaps we should read
Tinnito for which elsewhere Tinnipo is written.
See Du Cange s.v. Tinnito
Tyna (fluvius), ii   46, 88, 106; vi   204; vii   228

Tennyng, John
Calendar of Inquisitions, [England], Miscellaneous, Vol. 5, A.D. 1387 to 1393,
Tennyng, John, page 336, . . . of Northtauton
Tinneyhall, Tenethal (in Lewannick), Cornwall, page 136, . . . a location

Tynney, Richard, from List & Index Society, [England],
Chancery Patent Rolls 30 - 36 Elizabeth I, Index to Grantees,
published 1980, Vol. 167, page 259, [Index to Grantees on the Patent Rolls,
32-36 Elizabeth I (G. 66/A.D. 1347-1424)],
Tynney, Richard, B.A., A.D. 1393, m. 35

Tiny, Simon
Tiny, Thomas, son of Simon
Guide to the Reports of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts,
Part II - Index of Persons, Historical Manuscripts Commission,
Publications from 1911 to 1957, 55 Var. Coll. VII,
Tiny, Thomas, son of Simon, dated A.D. 1394

Tyne/Tyny, Thomas, from:
Records of Some Sessions of the Peace in Lincolnshire, A.D. 1381--1396,
[England], (Vol. II), The Publications of the Lincoln Record Society,
published 1962, The Parts of Lindsey, Vol. 56, pages 233, 245,
Thomas Tyne/Tyny, of Willoughton, juror;
Peace Rolls, Ancient Indictments # 63,
pages 232-233, # 665.
. . . 12 Jan 1395 . . . Thome Fraunceys de Wylughton' Thome Tyne
de eadem Iohannis Lowe de Hakthorne . . .
page 245, # 697.
. . . 12 Jan 1395 . . . Thome Fraunceys de Wylughton' Thome Tyny
de eadem Iohannis Lowe de Hakthorn' . . .
[Research Note:This is a proven example
of the surname interchange of Tyne to Tyny.]

Tyny, John, from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Richard II, [England],
A.D. 1377 to 1399, Vol. V, pages 690, 693, dated 16 Apr 1396 - Westminster
Tyny, John, of Little Dunham (chaplain), presented to the vicarage
of Runham, in the diocese of Norwich

Teny, Iohannes, from The Statute Merchant Roll of Coventry,
A.D. 1392-1416, published in 1939, The Dugdale Society,
Vol. 17, pages 33, 42,
"xvj{o} die mensis Aprilis anno supradicto (A.D. 1400)
Iohannes Teny de Miere{5} (Mere) Dyere decomitatu Wyldes
recognouit se teneri Iohanni Cok* de Lilleburn'{6} (Lilbourne,
Northants) in xx libris sterlingorum soluendis in festo sancti Michaelis
archangeli proxime futuro.{7} (See p. 42, below.)"
[Research Note: Coventry is located in central Warwickshire, England,
18 miles southeast of Birmingham.]

Tenney, John, from List & Index Society, [England],
Chancery Patent Rolls 30 - 36 Elizabeth I, Index to Grantees,
published 1980, Vol. 167, page 254,
[Index to Grantees on the Patent Rolls,
32-36 Elizabeth I (G. 66/A.D. 1347-1424)],
Tenney, John, A.D. 1401, m. 52

Teny, Iohannem, from The Statute Merchant Roll of Coventry,
A.D. 1392-1416, published in 1939, The Dugdale Society,
Vol. 17, pages 33, 42,
"sexto die mensis ffebruarii anno regni Regis Henrici quarti
post conquestum quarto [A.D. 1402/1403] Iohannes Cok* de Lille-
burn'{1} (Lilbourne, Northants.) habuit unam certificacionem{2}
(P.R.O. Chancery Files, G. 144.  It is endorsed: Wiltes. Coram Iusti-
ciariis domini Regis de Banco in xv. Pasche. See p. 33, above.)
versus Iohannem Teny de Miere{3} (Mere) Dyere de comitatu
Wylees [sic] de xx libris quas ei soluisse debuit apud Couentre in festo
sancti Michaelis archangeli anno regni Regis Henrici quarti post
conquestum primo; facta fuit recognicio predicta coram Galfridode
Hampton'* tunc maiore ville predicte et Iohanne Ofchirch'*
tunc clerico videlicet sextodecimo die mensis Aprilis anno
regni dicti domini Regis primo supradicto [A.D. 1400].

Tenys, Adam, from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Henry IV, [England],
A.D. 1399 to 1413, Vol. II, page 336, dated 18 Oct 1403 - Westminster
Adam Tenys of Estudenham, for not appearing when sued with
Robert Vyncent of Mateshalebergh to answer John Kempe,
clerk, touching a trespass. - Norfolk.

Teny, John, from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Henry IV, [England],
A.D. 1399 to 1413, Vol. II, page 445, dated 03 Feb 1405 - Westminster
"John Teny, for not appearing to answer Henry Levek, parson
of the Church of South Cadebury, touching a debt of 100s." - Somerset

Tyny, John
Tyny, Thomas
The Register of John Chandler, Dean of Salisbury, A.D. 1404-1417, [England],
edited by T. C. B. Timmins, published 1984, Wiltshire Record Society,
page 103, # 286, [f.117], dated 20 Oct 1408, Mere. [Meere], [in Wiltshire]
. . .
Thomas Tyny for fornication with John Tyny's servant.
. . .

Tanney, Richard, from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Henry IV, [England],
A.D. 1399 to 1413, Vol. IV, page 93,
Tanney, Richard, parson of Stow Langtoft, (of Little Burstead)

Tanne, Thomas, from Yorkshire Archaeology Society Record Series,
[England], Vol. 118, page 44, Two Obedientiary Rolls of Selby Abbey
"Et de iiii s. de feno decimali pratorum de Rednesse sic vendito
Thome Tanne hoc anno et novo plus quia residuum fuit consumptum
per dicta diluvia et tum soleb' in praeced' vendi' pro v s."
Roll B - (A.D. 1420-1421)

Tuney, John, from List & Index Society, [England],
Chancery Patent Rolls 30 - 36 Elizabeth I, Index to Grantees,
published 1980, Vol. 167, page 259, [Index to Grantees on the Patent Rolls,
32-36 Elizabeth I (G. 66/A.D. 1347-1424)],
Tuney, John, A.D. 1421, m. 7d

Teny, Emma
Teny, Richard, from Catalogue of Ancient Deeds, [England], Vol. V,
Teny, 10679 - A10679 - Norf[olk], [England], dated (A.D. 1427-1428)
. . . to Richard Teny of Estodenham, and Emma his wife, their heirs
and assigns, of 10 1/2 a arable and a piece of heath in Estodenham
and Hokeryng, lying dispersed in eleven pieces.
Tuesday after St. Augustine, 6 Henry VI

Teny, Thomas, from Devon and Cornwall Record Society, N.S.,
[England], Vol. 18,
Teny, Thomas: tons. IV. 154c.
Ordinati Per Dominum Ad Primam Tonsuram In Progressu
Suo Ad Crismandum Pueros Per Diocesim Anno Domini
M{o}CCCC{o}xxxiiijj{o} (A.D. 1434) . . . Ordinations . . .
The Register of Edmund Lacy . . .

Tenys, John [Johanne], from Oxford Historical Society, [England],
Epistolae Academicae Oxon. (Registrum F), Vol. 35, Part I, (A.D. 1421-1457),
with Index in Vol. 36; A collection of letters and other miscellaneous documents
illustrative of academical life and studies at Oxford in the Fifteenth Century,
published A.D. 1898, pages 174-175,
Item # 139., To the Bishop of Exeter, Fol. 50 b., page 175, A.D. 1438 - 1439,
Testimonial letters issued for Master Michael Tregorre and Master John Tenys
. . .
A.D. 1439
MEMORANDUM, quod vicesimo septimo die mensis Marcii,
anno Domini millesimo quadringentesimo tricesimo nono,
sigillata erat littera testimonialis, sub sigillo et forma communi,
pro magistro Johanne Tenys arcium magistro.
Letter 'supplicatory' for Master John Tenys
MEMORANDUM, quod vicesimo octavo die mensis Marcii,
anno Domini millesimo quadringentesimo tricesimo octavo {2}
(Apparently an error for nono; see prec. Mem.)
sigillata erat una littera supplicatoria
pro magistro J. Tenys, sub sigillo et forma communi.

Tenny, John, from:
Index to the First Twenty Volumes of the Trans. of the East Riding
Antiquarian Society
, [Yorkshire, England], Vol. 6, p. 67,
Accounts--Beverley-- A. D. 1446 - 1447,
in the 25 yr. of the Reign of King Henry,
the sixth after the conquest of England.
"And for fine of a servant of Patrick Knight, another man of the same,
of Robert Tyler of Beverley, John Tenny, and William Lillywhyte
of Beverley, for osiers, oaksaplings, and shrubs. --"

Teny, Roger, from The Index Library, [England],
Index to Wills Proved in the Consistory Court of Norwich,
A.D. 1370 to 1550, and Wills Among the Norwich Enrolled Deeds,
A.D. 1286 to 1508, Vol. 69, published 1945, page 363,
A.D. 1447, Teny, Roger, Est Tudenham, Norf.   (137 Wylbey)

Tynny Family
Tynny alias Hancock
Tynny, John
Tynny's Mill
Tynny, Roger
A History of Wiltshire, [England], published 1965, Vol. VIII, page 211,
Whorwellsdown Hundred, Steeple Ashton: [Beginning circa A.D. 1450],
In the mid-15th century John Tynny held a watermill and 1/3 virgate of
land, which had formerly been held by Roger Tynny, as a copyhold of
the manor of Steeple Ashton.{7} (S.C. 12/16/65.)  A century later the
mill then called Tynny's Mill was held by Robert Hancock and Walter
his brother.{8} (S.C. 12/4/2; L.R. 2/191. They were probably descended
in some way from the Tynny family, the name of Tynny alias Hancock
being often found, e.g. in S.C. 2/208/6 m. 2d [A.D. 1493].)  The mill was
variously called Hancock's Mill, Tynny's Mill, or Tinhead Mill in the
early 17th century; it lay at the northern end of Ashton Normead and
Tinhead Normead, in the position of the modern Ashton Mill Farm.{9}
(E 178/4697.) . . . The building was demolished to make way for
the airfield.{14} (See p. 199).
[Research Note:  See earlier entries for this family
in A.D. 1318, A.D. 1328, A.D. 1331, A.D. 1332, and A.D. 1408]

Tinnyo, a place name,
from The Visitation of the County of Cornwall - 1620, [England],
The Publications of The Harleian Society,
Dated: H[enry]. VI. 27 [A.D. 1448 - 1449] (at Fenton),
place name, Tinnyo, . . . all the lands lying in Davies
wihin [within] the Mannor of Fenton and also all his lands in Tinnyo.
Twyunyo, Walter
Tynyow, Walter
Teny, Walter
[Research Note:
Parochial and Family History of the Deanery of Trigg Minor,
in the County of Cornwall., [England], by Sir John MacLean, F.S.A.,
published A.D. 1879, Vol. III, Parish of St. Minver, page 287,
mentions under INSTITUTIONS., Dated "Unknown",
the name of Walter Twyunyo.{3}
On 14th Dec. 1412 License of absence was granted by the Bishop
to Walter Tynyow, Rector of the Church of Trevalga, until the feast
of S. Michael then next following. (Bishop Stafford's Reg.)
A Walter Teny, from Calendar of Patent Rolls - Edward IV, [England],
A.D. 1461 to 1477, Vol. II, page 475, is mentioned later in a document
dated 23 Nov 1474 - Westminster,  the "Pardon to Walter Teny
late of Morvell, co. Cornwall, 'marchand' [merchant], alias of Somerton,
co. Somerset, 'yoman'.  The Twynyho surname, from List & Index Society,
[England], List of Escheators for England and Wales, published 1971, Vol. 72,
for the area of Somerset and Dorset, is listed on pages 140-141, as:
Twynyho, John, with date of appointment: 17 Dec 1426;
Twynyho, Thomas, of Keyford, with date of appointment: 05 Nov 1469;
Twynyho, John, with date of appointment: 05 Nov 1470.]


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Thomas Milton Tinney, Sr.
Who's Who in America, Millennium Edition [54th] - 2004
Who's Who In Genealogy and Heraldry, [both editions]

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