COMPUTER - INTERNET - SOFTWARE: Genealogy Programs Support
Computer and Internet resources for the experienced computer user, genealogist,
family historian, or Newbie just beginning to learn about the Internet.
Family Genealogy & History Internet Education Directory™ - Wiki | SEARCH This Site
 Associations & User Groups  Company Contacts
 Computer Hardware  Computer Shopping & Comparison
 Computer Software for Genealogists  Downloads -  Freebies - Open Source
 Education, Training & Support: Build PC  Genealogy Webmaster & Webmasters
 General Genealogical Resources  Guides & Directories

 Internet & Computer History

 Internet Security

 Music & Games

 Photography & Digital Preservation

CURRENT INFORMATION: Country Profiles | OpenNet Initiative - Internet Filtering
 Downdetector: Real-time status information detecting vital digital technology failures.
Freedom House  Expanding Freedom and Democracy: Freedom on the Net
NetBlocks® - The Internet's Observatory: Tracking Cybersecurity & Digital Governance
Real time, unbiased, independent, global Internet monitor mapping Internet freedom.


 MOBILE DEVICES: Mobile Devices
 Mobile Devices - Mashable
 * Mobile Operating System: Comparison
Evolution of Mobile Operating Systems

Facebook® Mobile
- Google™ Mobile
     - (OS)
     - Google™ Play: [FH -

   - LAPTOP Magazine:
     Authoritative voice on all things mobile.
Mobile Learning |
   - Mobile Search:
   - Mobilizing to Support Mobile Users
   - Scan Photos in Place. | Flip-Pal®

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 NEWS & VIEWS: News, Media & Travel
Computer Magazines: List of CM
 * Ars Technica

 * Computing Reviews:
News - Topics
Make Tech Easier
 * MIT Technology Review - Computing
 * Newslinx®

 PC Magazine
 * Slashdot
 * Tech & Internet Industry News
 * TechCrunch
 * Techdirt Wireless
 * Technology for Genealogy
 * Technology News and Analysis - BetaNews
Technology News - The Washington Post
TechRadar | Tech buying advice
 * Guides - Wired Magazine
 * D - Technology

 * ZDNet

 Marcus P. Zillman: Internet Deep Search
 * Subject Tracers
 * White Papers

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 SEARCH ENGINES: The Web, Worldwide
 Top Search Engines & Directories
 Genealogy & FH Portals and Browsers
 * CiteSeerX
   [Search for genealogy, family history, etc.]
   Digital library and search engine focuses
   primarily on the literature in computer
   and information science.
   Knowledge engine that generates
   powerful results and presents them
   with maximum clarity.
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TRENDS: Oxford Internet Institute
 InfoWorld An independent voice
 best known for identifying important
 tech trends early. [
IT, Web 2.0]
Future Internet - MDPI
   International open access journal: Internet
   technologies and the information society.
Google™ Trends [Google™ Trends]
   Online research analysis & tracking tool.
Google™ Trends: Genealogy
   - Google™ Trends: Family History
   - Surname - Worldwide, 2004 - present
 * Hitwise® Online Consumer Intelligence
 * The World Online | Geonet
 * USC Annenberg School Center
   Center for the Digital Future
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 WORLD: FHI Standards Organization:
 Family History Iinformation SO Regions
 Submissions - Call for Papers
 FH Information Standards Organisation
Internet Demographics & Statistics
   - FamiLinx
 * Open Genealogy Alliance
   - Standards List
     Family history data exchange across
     various software solutions and platforms.
What's New In Genealogy
& Family History Resources?
   - AARP - Technology
- SeniorNet®
     Latest software, reviews
     & educational information.
BYU Computer Science: Relative Finder
   - FamilySearch™

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ASSOCIATIONS and USER GROUPS: Internet - Portal:Internet
* Association for Computing Machinery
  Advancing skills of information technology professionals and students worldwide.
ACM Digital Library
Full text of every article ever published by ACM, as wel as
    bibliographic citations from major publishers in computing.

Association of Internet Researchers
Students and scholars in any discipline in the field of of Internet studies.
* Association of Personal Computer User Groups
Cyndi's List - Societies & Groups
    Computer Interest Groups (CIGs).
National Genealogical Society Guidelines for Use of Computer Technology (pdf)
* Digital Humanities: ADHO - Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations
  - Companion to Digital Humanities
  - NINCH Guide to Good Practice
    Digital representation and management of cultural heritage materials.

* IEEE Computer Society: Computer Magazine, Articles, Multimedia

  Worldwide organization for computing professionals.
  International Federation for Information Processing.
* Internet Society (ISOC)
  Professional membership society with 100 plus organizations
  and over 20,000 individual members in over 180 countries.
Stack Overflow
  Largest online community for programmers to learn,
  share their knowledge, and advance their careers.
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: Companies - Investors - News - People - Schools - TechCrunch
Discover industry trends, investments, and news about global companies--
from startups to the Fortune 1000.
List of Largest Information Technology Companies:
List of Largest Internet Companies
* Adobe Systems Incorporated
Cisco Systems, Inc
   Worldwide leader in networking for the Internet.
  - Linux Documentation Project:
Linux Gazette
Microsoft®: Microsoft® Corporation - Portal:Microsoft
Microsoft® Windows®: Download - Internet Explorer
  Leader in software and hardware or personal and business computing.
  - Microsoft® Business Hub (Beta)
    Resources and answers fir small and midsize business needs.
MyLifeBits - Microsoft Research
    Information about:
Saving Your Bits for Posterity.
Bill Gates: Bill Gates: Chairman
      Background information and interests, transcripts of speeches; read essays
      and columns about many ways technology is changing and improving our lives.
Ancestry of Bill Gates: Bill Gates family
Parents: William H. Gates, Sr. and Mary (Maxwell) Gates
        - Wife and Family:
Melinda Ann (French) Gates 
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Oracle® Software Powers the Internet™: Oracle® Site Maps
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COMPUTER HARDWARE: Computer Hardware: History of Computing Hardware
Computer Hardware by Company:
Personal Computer
* AnandTech - - Tom's Hardware: News, Tests and Reviews (Global)
  Hardware analysis, guides, information, news and "stats".
  UK's leading source for hardware and games reviews.
Microsoft Publicises Free eBook Collection
* Computer Hardware Manufacturers
  - Intel®:
Site Map
    Premier hardware technologies.
Computer System Manufacturers: Computing
  - Apple Inc. -
Portal:Apple Inc.
    - Apple Computer
Apple Museum
      Free repair manual.

    - Mactracker
    - Official Google™ Mac Blog:
Apple | Gigaom
    - ULTIMATE Macintosh
  - Dell Computer: Dell
  - Gateway®
Hewlett-Packard: Hewlett Packard
    Information and support on computer products.
Compaq US and Worldwide
  - IBM:
IBM - United States: About IBM - United States
    Leader in the creation, development and manufacture
    of the industry's most advanced information technologies.
Sun® Microsystems: Oracle & Sun
    The Network Is The Computer™-- Take it to the nth degree.
* Open Compute Project
  Reimagining hardware, making it more efficient, flexible, and scalable.
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* Children's Technology Review
  Review of books, software, videos and toys, teacher and parent resources.
* Internet Service Provider: Category:Internet Service Providers by Country
- How To Evaluate Free Internet Service Providers (ISPs) |
    - Free Internet Access Providers
    - United States and Canada: All Free ISP
    Resources and information for ISPs, hosts, data centers,
    WISPs, and Internet access providers.
    - United® Online
      Services from Juno
® Online and NetZero® Online.
Netflix ISP Speed Index
    Compare global internet service provider speeds.
Wireless Internet Service Provider
  Buy computer parts, PC components, laptop computers and digital cameras.
* OSNews™ shopping comparison.

  Computers, electronics, digital cameras, books, DVDs, etc.

* SmartKids™
  - Kids Educational Software For Preschoolers
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Computer Software: Software Industry
* Computers & Software Genealogy - GenDir
* Cyndi's List - Software & Computers
* GitHub
  How people build software.
  - AnyAPI - Discover and Try Public APIs
Internet-Of-Things (IOT) Resources (pdf)
* Modern Software Experience
Programs - Genealogy/Software: Genealogy Software
  Genealogy Software Reviews - GenSoftReviews
  All the genealogy software, reviewed and rated by you.
  - Agelong Tree
  - Ages! Family Tree Database
  - Ancestral Author
  - Ancestral Quest™
  - Ancestris - Genealogy Program
  - Brother's Keeper
Clooz: Electronic Filing Cabinet
Cumberland Family Software
  - DoroTree (Jewish) 
Family Historian
  - Family Origins®
Family Tree Builder
    Free genealogy program - MyHeritage.
  - Family Tree Legends
Family Tree Maker®r
  - Family Tree Software from Progeny Genealogy
  - FAMware®, Computer Software for the Family
  - Genbox™ Family History
  - Genealogia (English)
  - GenealogyJ
Genealogy & Family Trees
  - Genealogy Software - SoftwareGeek
  - GeneWeb
GenoPro - Genealogy Software
  - GenSmarts
  - Gramps Genealogical Software
  - Heredis®
    Family tree software, genealogy program, genealogical online research.
  - Legacy Family Tree: Legacy News
  - Legacy Republic
MacFamilyTree - Modern genealogy for your Mac
Mac Genealogy Software
    Mac Genealogy software news, reviews, and information.
Genealogy Tools
      Genealogy software tutorials for Mac and PC
Reunion for Macintosh
PhpGedView - PGVWiki
RootsMagic™ - Software to Unite Families
rootstrust a program for managing your genealogy data
Software for Genealogists (archived)
webtrees™ - Web Based Family History Software

    Web's leading online collaborative genealogy application.
Windows Software - S&N Genealogy Supplies
  - ZDNet (Search "genealogy")
* Software Industry SIG
  Dedicated to preserving the history of the software industry,
  one of the largest and most influential industries in the world today.
History of Genealogy Software
    Early genealogy software programs.

Software Informer
  Designed to keep users informed about the latest trends
  and developments of software;  a base for opinion exchanges
  and a place to belong as part of the social network.
Best Family Tree Software - Genealogy Software Reviews
    10TopTenREVIEWS: Best Genealogy and family tree software.
Comparison of Genealogy Software
  - Comparison of Web-Based Genealogy Software

Genealogy Software Reviews
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Adobe Systems: Adobe® Downloads
  - Adobe® - Adobe Flash Player
  - Adobe® Reader Download
  - Adobe® - Adobe Shockwave Player
PDF Converter
    Convert to PDF, create PDF files | Adobe Acrobat X Pro.
* Animation Library: Links
  World's largest free animation collection; sites offering free stuff.
* Belarc Advisor
  Builds a detailed profile of your installed software and hardware,
  network inventory, missing Microsoft hotfixes, anti-virus status,
  security benchmarks and displays the results in your Web browser.
  Free software downloads and software reviews.
* Download & Streaming: The Internet Archive Software Collection.
  Largest vintage and historical software library in the world,
  providing instant access to millions of programs,
  CD-ROM images, documentation and multimedia.
  Download free software
Free Software: Portal:Free Software: Categories - Topic Outline of Free Software
Comparison of Open Source Software Hosting Facilities
  - Free & Open Source Software
    - FOSS
      UNESCO Free Software Portal gives access to documents and websites
      which are references for the Free Software/Open Source Technology
      movement.  It is also a gateway to resources related to Free Software.

      International Free and Open Source Solutions Foundation.
Free Software Directory: FSF blogs
Free Software Foundation
    Working together for free software.
Free Software Resources
  - Softpedia®
    Encyclopedia of
free downloads software.
Software Geek
    Free software downloads and reviews
Freebie Marketing: Free Sample - Promotional Item
Absolutely Freebies
    Free stuff, freebies, freeware, samples, downloads, email, games, software, fonts,
    webmaster freebies, MP3s, sweepstakes, contests, coupons, catalogs and food.

  - Open Directory - Computers: Software: Freeware
  - Portable Freeware Collection - Latest Entries
* Open-Source Software Development
  - Free Genealogy Software
  - Open Source Living
    Ddynamic archive of Open Source software (OSS) spanning
    all major platforms, inclusive of small to large scale projects.

Open Source Windows
    Free, open-source software for Windows XP and Vista
  - SourceForge™.net
Search Results for “genealogy”
    - Windows - Download Open Source Software
* OpenCellular: An Open Source Wireless Access Platform
  Develop affordable new technology that can expand capacity and make it more
  cost-effective for operators to deploy networks in places where coverage is scarce.
* OpenDOF (Open Distributed Object Framework) Project:
Blog - OpenDOF
  Secure, flexible, and interoperable open-source software framework enabling
  the development of scalable and reliable network services based on connected objects.
* Shareware
  - Open Directory - Computers: Software: Shareware: Directories
Shareware Junction
    Free software downloads.
TUCOWS: Tucows
Tucows Software Library
    Free software, download and streaming at Internet Archive
* Ultimate List of 21 Free and Open Source Data Visualization Tools
* Web Site Hosting Providers
  Information for Genealogy Webmaster - Webmasters.
ZDNet Free Downloads | Shareware, Trialware, Evaluation Software
  Software directory is the web's largest library of software download,
  covering software for Windows, Mac, and Mobile systems.
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EDUCATION, TRAINING and SUPPORT SERVICES: Online Education & Resources
Information Technology: Portal:Information Technology - Topic Outline of IT
* - News, Reviews, and Technical Support
  free community where people like yourself come together to discuss and learn
  how to use their computers in an atmosphere that is both helpful and welcoming;
  of all skill levels to learn how to use and receive support for their computer.
* Blue Skyways: Train Station
  Learn the basics of computers and the Internet
* BUILD YOUR OWN COMPUTER: How to Build your Own Computer
  Illustrated, step-by-step guide; everything necessary to build a personal computer.
Build Your Own Computer
    How to choose and build a computer.

Build Your Own PC | PCMech
Build Your Own PC - Step by Step Building Guide
How To Assemble A Desktop PC
  - Low Cost Computer Guide
    Appropedia: The sustainability wiki
  - Cyndi's List - CD-ROMs
* Class Central
Complete list of free online courses offered by Stanford's Coursera,
    MIT and Harvard led edX (MITx + Harvardx), and Udacity.

Free Computer Science Classes Online
    - Computer Science 101 | Coursera
      Teaches the essential ideas of Computer Science
      for a zero-prior-experience audience.
Complete Guide to Giving Better Family Tech Support
* Computer Hope™
  Free computer help for everyone.
Computer Science Department Web Servers
Servers of computer science (and related)
  departments at universities throughout the net.
  Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Computer Hardware
Computer Networking
Computer Programming
    - 10 Sources for Free Computer Programming Courses Online
    - 15 Places to Learn to Code for Fee (+ Pros & Cons)
100+ Free Online Websites to Learn to Code for Beginners - Skillcrush
    - Bento | Learn To Code The Way Professional Programmers Do
    - Code Beach
      Free and open source code and tutorials.
Code Ocean | Discover & Run Scientific Code
      For the first time, researchers, engineers, developers and scientists
      can upload code and data in any open source programming language
      and link working code in a computational environment
      with the associated article for free.
    - Developer's Toolkit - The Most Useful Tools for Programmers
Find the Best Online Programming Courses and Tutorials -
    - Free Coding Courses For Kids | Pluralsight
    - Learn to Code | Codecademy
    - One Month | Learn How to Code Websites, Apps, & More
    - Script and Code Resources (pdf)
      Script and code resources and sites on the Internet.
Stack Overflow: Stack Overflow
      Programming Q & A site that's free.
Useful YouTube™ Channels that Teach You How to Code
    - Visual Studio Code - Code Editing. Redefined
Why All Children Must Learn Code
Computer Science
  - Computer Software
Internet Technologies
    - Domain Names
Operating Systems

Microsoft Windows
      - Top Windows Tutorials
        Free Windows tutorials for everybody
  Data storage, converged, cloud computing, and data protection.
File Transfer: Uploading & Downloading
  - File Transfer Protocol - FTP:
Comparison of FTP Client Software
Secure FTP Software & FTP Server with WS_FTP & MOVEit
* How-To Geek
  Source of computer help and how-to articles, with content
  easy enough for beginners but useful enough for geeks as well.
* How to Teach Computational Thinking—Stephen Wolfram Blog
  Formulating things with enough clarity, and in a systematic enough way,
  that one can tell a computer how to do them.
Encyclopedia of Educational Technology
IGI Global
  International publishing company specializing
  in high-quality research publications in the fields
  of information science, technology, and management.
Individual Software
  Personal productivity and computer training software
  Computer training, education, and tutorial resources.
* Introduction to Computers - A Guide for Beginners
Jan's Illustrated Computer Literacy 101
* Maran Illustrated™ Computer Books
  Visual grammar that combines images and words to convey complex information
  in a manner that is at once comprehensive and easy-to-follow.
* NetLingo
® - The Internet Dictionary
  Online dictionary of computer and Internet terms,
  acronyms, text messaging and smileys.
New User Tutorial
  Designed to help people who have never used a computer before.
  Because newer is not always better.
Online CS Courses | Computer Science
* openHPI
  MOOCs - start to enjoy learning now.
  Subjects in Information and Communications Technology (ICT).
O'Reilly® Media
  Technology books, tech conferences, IT courses and news.
  - Safari Books Online
    Electronic reference library for programmers and IT professionals.
* PC Mechanic
  PC assembly, hardware and software tutorials.
* PC Pitstop
  Free PC diagnostics and tuneups.
  Answers on the "Fly".
Teach Parents Tech
Built by a few folks at Google to help keep tech support a family business.
* TechTutorials
  Free computer reference.

TechWeb: TechEncyclopedia and
  IT encyclopedias and learning centers.
Tutorials - thenewboston -- Education
* | Consider a Career in Computing: Resources
  Links to additional tools and resources.
* Virtual Dr® Forums-Computer Tech Support
  Community where computing problems get solved.

  Online computer dictionary for computer and Internet terms and definitions.

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GENERAL GENEALOGICAL RESOURCES: Research Tools, Articles & Forms
* Computer-Mediated Communication
Computing/Internet Resources Mailing Lists
RootsWeb: Genealogy Mailing Lists: Genealogical Computing
  - Genealogy and the Se
mantic Web (archived)

    Guide for family historians and amateur genealogists.
  - Genealogy Webmaster - Webmasters: General Information

GEDCOM 5.5.1 (pdf) and XML
  - BetterGedcom
Build a better GEDCOM Wiki, by establishing a standard for the transmission,
    sharing and updating of genealogical information.

Cyndi's List - GEDCOM
    GEnealogical Data COMmunications.

  - Dan Pidcock's
GA: GEDCOM Assessment
    What a genealogy GEDCOM file is and how to use GEDCOMs.

  - GEDCOM Library: GEDCOM Index
  - GEDitCOM: Macintosh Genealogy Software

GEDmark™ Download - Genelines Universal
Gedpage - GEDCOM to HTML Genealogy Webpage Builder
  - GedTree - Family Tree Website Generator
  - GNTP - Genealogy Network Transfer Protocol
  - Is GEDCOM Still Relevant In Today's Online World? Part One
RootsLink Search Results
    Descendant - pedigree charts: Gedcoms.
Submit Your Tree |
WorldConnect Project
    Connecting the world one GEDCOM at a time.
XML From the Inside Out
    XML development, XML resources, XML specifications.

    - Cover Pages
Comprehensive, online reference collection supporting the XML family of markup
      language standards, XML vocabularies & related structured information standards.
      - Genealogical Data & XML
      - List of XML Markup Languages

XML - White Papers and Technology Research
* Mobile app: List of mobile app distribution platforms
Keywords vs. Search Queries: What's the Difference?]
  - App Store (iOS)
App Store - Apple
family - Apple
family history - Apple
genealogy - Apple
Apple Developer Program - Apple Developer
  - FamilySearch Mobile Apps: The Family Tree App's Cool Features
FamilySearch Interactive Apps
  - Google Play
Parent Guide to Google™ Play - Google™ Play Help
Family - Android Apps on Google™ Play
      - family histor* - Android Apps on Google™ Play
genealog* - Android Apps on Google™ Play
  - Microsoft Store (digital)
Get Microsoft Store - Microsoft Store
Online Computer Store - Microsoft Store
      - family - Microsoft Search
genealogy - Microsoft Search
  - Others - Apps
BlackBerry World: Apps for Smartphones & Tablets
Search Results - family
Search Results - genealogy
* Mobile Device: Mobile Web -
Portable Computing
    Software solutions for mobile and beyond PC.
Comparison of Netbooks
  - Comparison of Portable Media Players
  - Ericsson Mobility Report
    Forecasts the growth of mobile technology, including IoT connections and LTE.
GSMA Intelligence: GSMA Mobile Connectivity Index
  - Mobile Genealogy
    Genealogy software, iPhones, PDAs and netbooks.
    - CE My Family 2.0 Windows Mobile Pocket PC
    - Cyndi's List - Mobile Devices
    - GHCS Products
      Genealogical research in conjunction with a PC-based genealogy application.
      - Other Platforms
Legacy Mobile App
      Free Family Tree Mobile App: for the Genealogist on the go.

    - Mobile Genealogy?
    Palm Pilot & IBM WorkPad users researching their genealogy on the Internet.
    - My Roots: The Genealogist's Notepad
    - Pocket Genealogist by Northern Hills Software LLC
  - Mobile Phone
    - Cell Phone Facts
      How to compare, rate and choose the best cell phone.
    - Smartphone & Pocket PC Magazine
Comparison of Smartphones
  - Palm (PDA) [Personal Digital Assistant]: PalmOS Guide
Palm, Inc.: webOS
      Mobile products for consumers, professionals and businesses.
Pocket PC: List of Pocket PC Devices
Podcast: FluidDATA Podcast Search Engine
    Podcasting Toolbox
    70+ podcasting tools and resources.
Cyndi's List - Podcasts for Genealogy
Genealogy Gems: Podcasts
    - Genealogy Guys Podcast:
Genealogy Guys Learn
Genealogy Podcasts
List of Genealogy Podcast Series - Google™ Search
    - Listen Notes
      Podcast search engine and podcast database.
    - Open Culture: University & College Podcasts
      Free open culture educational podcasts.
    - Podcast Software List
      Many platforms, including Windows, Macintosh and Linux
    Check sites in various resolutions.
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Computer Science:
Portal:Computer Science - Topic Outline of Computer Science
Artificial Intelligence Resources on the Internet (pdf)
Robotics Institute: Projects – The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University
Integrating robotic technologies into everyday life.  State-of-the-art
    in a diversity of robotics-related fields, including space-robotics, computer graphics,
    medical robotics, computer vision, artificial intelligence and many others.
Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL): ACRLwiki
Index to ACRL Section Resources
* BotSpot
  Bot is a software tool for digging through data.
* Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies
* CompInfo
  Computer information center.
* Computer Science: A Guide to Web Resources
    Scientific literature digital  library and search engine.
* Computing & Computer Science
  WWW Virtual Library.
HCI Bibliography : Human-Computer Interaction / User Interface Usability
  Design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems
  for human use and the study of major phenomena surrounding them.

* IFLA Electronic Collections: Internet & Networking
IFLA Electronic Resource Guide
  - Indexes, Directories & Finding Aids
Internet & Library Software Archive
Technology Standards & Organizations
* Martindale's The Reference Desk: Internet
  Cyber infrastructure, clusters, computers, Internet,
  intranet, internetworking and supercomputing center.

* Voice of the Shuttle: Net Tools Page
  General Information about the Internet, guides to the Internet, utilities,
  web page tools, web browsers (and helper applications), connecting to the web.
Cyberculture (VOS: Voice of the Shuttle)
* World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
  Develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software and tools)
  to lead the Web to its full potential as a forum for information, commerce,
  communication and collective understanding.

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History of the Internet: Brief History of the Internet
Brief History of the Web: From 17th Century Computers to Today's Digital Empires
* Charles Babbage Institute
  Preserving the history of information technology
  and promoting and conducting research in the field.
Research Collections at Other Institutions & Related Web Sites
Vintage Computer Sources

Chip History Center
   Virtual museum covering the history of the semiconductor industry.

* Computer History Museum - Timeline of Computer History
Computing History
  The UK Computer Museum - Cambridge
* DigiBarn
  Big Directory of Museums, Online Collections and History Pages.
* Global Networking Timeline: 1000-1799
  Provides a timeline for three types of developments and milestones:
  (1) advances in long distance person-to-person communication;
  (2) advances in storage, replication, cataloguing, finding, and retrieval of data;
  (3) standardization of concepts and tools for long distance interaction.
  - Global Networking Timeline: 1800-1899
  - Global Networking Timeline: 1900-1959
  - Global Networking Timeline: 1960-1989
  - Global Networking Timeline: 1990-1999
  - Global Networking Timeline: 2000-2009
  - Global Networking Timeline: 2010-2019
  - Global Networking Timeline: 2020-
* History of Computing: History of Computing
* History of the Computer
  Visualisation begins in 1936, with the creation of the Z1 Computer;
  but, where will it end?
* Internet: Portal:Internet - Topic Outline of the Internet
  - 03b Networks:
Service Coverage
    Connecting the other three (3) billion, by making the Internet
    accessible and affordable to everyone on the planet.
  - Global Internet Usage:
List of Countries by Number of Internet Users
ClickZ | Marketing News & Expert Advice: Stats
comScore® Networks (Media Metrix)
Internet Demographics Resources (pdf)
    - Netcraft Ltd: Most Visited Web Sites
      Internet research, anti-phishing and PCI security services.
    - Statistics Resources and Big Data on the Internet (pdf)
      - Internet Statistics & Resources — Infoplease®
        - Top 15 Countries in PCs-in-Use
      - Internet Usage World Stats - Internet & Population Statistics
        - World Internet Usage Statistics & Population Stats
Internet Users -
    - Worldwide | The Nielsen Company:
  - Internet2®:
    U.S. and international leaders in research, academia, industry
    and government who create and collaborate via innovative technologies.
IT History Society
  Historical resources links
  Elegantly organized tour of the Internet.
* World Wide Web:
The Birth of the Web | CERN
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INTERNET SECURITY: Internet Security
Computer Insecurity

  - Computer Virus
    - Antivirus Software
IBM Software
        Application and process security.
      - McAfee
        Antivirus software and intrusion prevention solutions.
      - Symantec™:
Site Map - Symantec Corp.
        Internet security technology, including Norton AntiVirus™
        product information, news and reviews, downloads and services.
Training | Symantec
ZoneAlarm® Internet Security Software
        Global Internet security, firewall, antivirus and antispyware
Computer Virus Tutorial Introduction
Hoax: Virus Hoax
Anti-Virus, Anti-Hoax, Anti-Myth, Anti-Fraud and Anti Spam Resources (pdf)
      Folklore, myths and urban legends.

* Computer Security: Portal:Computer Security
Der Keiler: Latest Security News
  - McAfee Threat Intelligence | McAfee, Inc.
  - Naked Security – Computer Security News, Advice and Research
    Award-winning computer security news.
    - Free Security Tools for Windows, Mac, Android
      Free Firewall and Linux AV Security Tool Downloads, by Sophos.
Security Discovery - Cyber Security News & Consulting Services
SANS Internet Storm Center: Internet Security
Stay Safe Online
    USA National Cyber Security Alliance.
    Nonprofit organization that makes the Web safer through the prevention,
    mitigation, and remediation of badware websites.

Threats - Symantec™ Corp.
    Comprehensive resource for daily, accurate and up-to-date information
    on the latest threats, risks and vulnerabilities.
  From spyware and adware,
    dialers, hack tools, hoaxes and other risks.
    World's largest Internet safety and help group
for victims of cyberabuse,
    ranging from online fraud, cyberstalking and child safety,
    to hacking and malicious code attacks.
  - ZoneAlarm®
    Antivirus software, firewall, spyware removal, virus scan: computer security.
Consumer Reports WebWatch
  Investigative reporting on credibility and trust online.
    Privacy seals and services: online trust and safety.  Make privacy your choice™
Data Recovery
  - IntelliRecovery
    Global data recovery services.
Kroll Ontrack
    Ontrack® Data Recovery services, software and solutions.
* International Fact-Checking Network - Poynter
  - Guide to anti-misinformation actions around the world
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MUSIC and GAMES: Computer Music and History of Video Games
The answer to generating popular genealogy and family history interest
by teenagers, youth and active adults, appears in the creation of interesting
computer games -- technology that can be used by individuals, as well as for
group interaction in shopping mall arcades, or other religious and educational
meeting locations.  Participation will occur, by the adoption of genealogy and
family history learning tools that conform actual research methodology with
popular culture: the instant personal gratification obtained in game action
time frame transitions.  Individuals or groups thus achieve positive goal
orientations, through interactive associations with the great lives of men
and women, adults and children, in past and present history; or, in the
projected future lives of civilizations yet born and unknown. From
Civilization, to computer game
Civilization, to the restoration
and re-creation of valid
Ancient & Modern Genealogies.
The benefit of this open interaction with other people,
is the restoration of bonding between common
ancestors and other researchers in -- real life;
experiencing in
Virtual Reality /Second Life®,
how different personalities react under
similar conditions.

* Art, Dance, Music & Theater: Music

  Music community, band photos, music, videos, journals and interviews.
  Classical music radio online and streaming classical music Internet radio.
Comparison of Online Music Stores
* Fun Stuff and Games
  - Sports Goods & Toys
Games Resources
Live Roots in Second Life (an outpost for Genealogists)
  - Locate all of the available SL genealogy (related) areas, and get information
    about a variety of database companies in the upcoming exhibitor area.
  Free music downloads, radio, lyrics, songs, and playlists.
* Personal Computer Game:
Video Game

Lists of Video Games
    - Christian Video Game
Educational Game
    - Nonviolent Video Game

RealPlayer is now RealPlayer Cloud
  Move, watch and share your videos.
* Sony Online
  Music, movies and TV, electronics, Playstation,
  online games and go shop.  Use JavaScript.
Taming Gaming - Family Video Game Database: Lists Sorted Alphabetically
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PHOTOGRAPHY & DIGITAL PRESERVATION: Historic Postcards/Photographs /mages
Photography: Portal:Photography - Topic Outline of Photography
Picturing the Family - OpenLearn - Open University
* 30 Free Online Photos, Videos & Music Editors - Hongkiat
* Amazon Rekognition
  This API has been tested against tens of millions of social images.
  Analyzes billions of images and videos daily. It requires no machine
  learning expertise before using it. Software will be used in the future,
  to help “narrow the field” of genealogical matching of facts, along with other
  physical, video, and geographical data sources, such as pictures and localities.
  Professional genealogists, family generational historians, and family newbie's
  beginning researchers, will be able to intelligently review and consider key “options”,
  by using their own personal judgment, with varying degrees of statistical confidence,
  to find unknown additional options, beyond DNA analysis, to explore opening present
  "brick walls" and "dead ends"; rather than simply giving up, by relying on the current
  computer genealogy program sets of findings, results, or uncertain family traditions.
Luxand - Face Recognition, Face Detection and Facial Feature Detection
Top 10 Facial Recognition APIs | RapidAPI
Top 22+ Emotion/Sentiment Analysis | RapidAPI

* Camera: A History of Photography from Daguerreotype to Digital
  By Todd Gustavson on YouTube™.
History of Photography & The Camera
How the Digital Camera Transformed Our Concept of History - IEEE Spectrum
    Vectors, photos, fonts, icons, wallpapers, brushes, styles, patterns, textures, & clipart.
Classroom Clipart
Free clipart, clip art illustrations and photographs.
  - Genealogy Clip Art ~ Graphics
  - and Animation Factory®
    Ultimate sources of web graphics, giving the user icons, photos,
    and clip art, with access to several thousand animated GIF's.
  - History Clipart, Illustrations & Photographs

Iconduck - Free open source icons, illustrations and graphics
Digital Photography Review
Authoritative reviews, news reports and the most comprehensive database
  of consumer digital cameras in the world; an open, active forum and useful tools.
  Collect, curate, and celebrate your memories now and for generations.
* Google™ Cultural Institute
* Google
™ Photos
  Free storage and automatic organization for all your memories.
  - Moving on from Picasa™
* Google™ Videos
How To Take Better Photos for Genealogy: Part One
How To Take Better Photos for Genealogy: Part Two

How To Take Better Photos for Genealogy: Part Three: Composition
  How To Take Better Photos for Genealogy: Part Four: Quality
  How To Take Better Photos for Genealogy: Part Five: Cameras
  How to Take Better Photos for Genealogy: Part Six: More about Cameras
List of Photo-Sharing Websites
  Online notable
photo sharing sites.
reate and share free web photo albums.
Flickr® - Photo Sharing: Commons (Institutions)
Instagram: Instagram
    - Instagram Insanity: 60+ Ways to Print, View and Share Instagram Photos
      Snap a picture, choose a filter to transform its look and feel, then post
      to Instagram.  Freely share to Facebook®, X, and Tumblr.
  - PBase by Slug
Photobucket: Blog
  - PictureTrail
    Photo books, cards, stationery and photo share sites.
  - Snapfish
Luminous Landscape

  Art of landscape, nature and documentary photography.

PhotoGraphicLibraries: Index and Library Directory
  Photographic Libraries is a unique resource that provides
  a broad range of visual solutions to enhance the creative process. 

  - Bing™ Images -
Google™ Image Search -
Yahoo!® Image Search
    Comprehensive image search on the web produces links to all sites,
    with pictures according to surnames entered.  Examples: Quibell - Tinney.
  - Finding Images on the Web
    Advanced online photo editor.
  - How to Source Great Images for Your Website
Image Databases - Photographica - Research Guides at Harvard Library
  - Image Searc
h & Online Image Editor at
  - JISC Digital Media
    Still images, moving images and sound advice
    - Cross-Media Advice
      Advice documents covering issues relating to all digital media resources.
      - Creating New Digital Media
      - Digitising Analogue Media

      - Finding & Using Digital Media
Finding Video, Audio and Images Online
Managing a Project
      - Managing Your Digital Resources

Metropolitan Museum of Art - Research: Image Resources
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
TinEye Reverse Image Search Engine
    Finds where an image came from, how it is being used, if modified
    versions of the image exist, or if there is a higher resolution version.
You Can Read 165 Years of the Royal Photographic Society's Journal for Free
* Photography & Genealogy
  - 123RF® Stock Photography
    Stock photos and royalty free images.
    - 15 + Places to Find Free Stock Photos & Images in 2024
Cyndi's List - Photographs & Memories
  - Dead Fred
    Free genealogy family history photo search by surname.
  - Digital Cameras & Genealogy
  - EverPresent - Your Family Memories Company
    Digitize aging photos and videos.
Family Old Photos - Genealogy Photo Archive Database
    Find ancestors for free, in our old pictures and photographs.

  - Family Photography Tips
FOREVER Storage® | Permanent Online Photo Storage
Fotosearch™: Genealogy Images & Stock Photos
    Stock photography, photos, stock footage video clips,
    royalty free images and illustrations.
  - Legacy Republic: Inspired by Your Family Stories
  - MyCanvas:
MyCanvas Blog
MyHeritage In Color™
    World’s most advanced technology for colorizing black and white photos.
Old Family Photos - MyHeritage
    Behind every family photo is a story.
  - Photography Basics for Genealogists: Part One: Orientation
Photography Basics for Genealogists: Part Two: Digital vs. Analog
Post-mortem Photography
  - Twile: The Story Of Your Family
V like Vintage
    Interactive photo community, library and image search engine
    for historical photos, old photos and old pictures.
  - When They Were Young
    Photographic retrospective of childhood.
* Photoshop Tutorials & Photoshop Pluggins
  Free Photoshop tutorials and links to free Photoshop brushes,
  plugins and resources.  Also offers a blog with the latest Photoshop news.
Software - Digital Media Lab - Research Guides at Humboldt State University
  Photo editing the easy way, online in your browser
Pictureline Photo Video Digital Cameras, Photography Equipment
Preservation & Archives Professionals: The Practical Archivist
Caring for Your Family Archives
  - Digital Photo Editing & Photo Restoration
    How to restore old photos.
    - Vivid-Pix™ Education
      (Gathering Traditions - Genealogy Education - How-To-Classes)
Vivid-Pix Software - Give Your pics (and documents) the Vivid-Pix
        Fast, easy photo editing software improves mobile, digital camera,
        and scanned images. Restore old, on land, snorkel & scuba pictures in 1-click.
  - Film Forever
  Simple guidelines for preserving motion picture film materials
    outside of specialized archives, with a focus on storage at home.
How to Digitize and Share Old Family Photos
    - How To Digitize and Archive Your Entire Family Photo Collection : howto

Motion Picture Film Preservation
    Everyone involved with digital images shares the challenge
    of tracking and managing their rapidly expanding collections.
    Images with embedded information about their ownership
    and content are easier to find and harder to misuse.
    Metadata is the key to better protecting copyrights,
    promoting licensing, improving workflow and managing assets.
Preserving Personal Papers and Photographs: General Guidelines
  - Preserving Photographs
Preserving Your Personal Digital Memories
    Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS).

  - Scanning Basics 101 - All about Digital Images
Cyndi's List - Scanners & Scanning
Scanner Reviews | Scanners Review |

Secure & Store - National Archives of Australia
    - Preserving Physical Records

* Prints & Photographs Reading Room
  Library of Congress - USA.
Travel Photography Tips
  Fodor's focus on travel photography
* Tutorial: 8mm & 16mm film to video & DVD

* Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part One - Genealogists Tend to Accumulate Stuff
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Two - The Cost of Physical Storage
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Three - The Dawn of the Digital Image Age
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Four - What is Digital Preservation?
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Five - What is Worth Preserving?
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Six - Deciding What to Preserve
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Seven -- Technological Challenges: Cameras
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Eight -- Technological Challenges: Scanners
Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Nine: More about File Formats
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Ten: The Importance of Image Quality
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Eleven: Focus, Focus, Focus
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part 12: How to Begin to Take Archive Quality Photos
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Thirteen: Damage
  Ultimate Digital Preservation Guide, Part Fourteen: Remediating the Damage
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