The BOOK [Stick] of LEVI

PREFACE

This record evaluates historical knowledge, as it relates to: ------  The BOOK [Stick] of LEVI
Information gleaned from social contexts, both secular and religious, are reviewed, using
modern genealogical research specialist standards: to properly reconstruct and correctly
portray real historical lives and family pedigrees.  Cultural, religious and family tradition,
(their stated facts and viewpoints), are surveyed within given ancient contexts of
primary
and secondary record sources, as handed down for the benefit of our modern generation.

 Family Genealogy & History Internet Education Directory - Wiki  |  SEARCH This Site
 Genealogy -- General Notes  025: Levi --- Source Notes  026: Kohath
 027: Amram - Priesthood Notes  028: Moses - Historical Notes  029: Gershom


Genealogy:
A Master Number beginning with three digits is given to the direct line
descending stem.  All other descending lineages are ordered according to
where they connect into the direct line of descent as sons or daughters.
They have a dash (-) to show the connection.  The Numbers are arranged
by time of birth in the family, where possible, with the direct descendant
being placed where he or she belongs by order of birth.  In cases of long
and questionable pedigrees, the lineage is shown descending down, but
with no numbering system attached.  Added commentary is author's opinion.

The Children of 024: JACOB - ISRAEL (the son of ISAAC)
024-003:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 025: The BOOK of LEVI

Research Notes
(General): ↑ upΛ
A. 
Ezekiel 37: 16-19  Moreover, thou son of man [Ezekiel], take thee one stick,
     and write upon it, For Judah, and for the children of Israel his companions:
     then take another stick, and write upon it, For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim,
     and for all the house of Israel his companions: And join them one to another
     into one stick; and they shall become one in thine hand.  And when the children
     of thy people shall speak unto thee, saying, Wilt thou not shew us what thou
    
meanest by these?  Say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will
     take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of
     Israel his fellows, and will put them with him, even with the stick of Judah,
     and make them one stick, and they shall be one in mine hand. 
1 Nephi 13: 37-42
     And blessed are they who shall seek to bring forth my Zion at that day, for
     they shall have the gift and the power of the Holy Ghost; and if they endure
     unto the end they shall be lifted up at the last day, and shall be saved in the
     everlasting kingdom of the Lamb; and whoso shall publish peace, yea, tidings
     of great joy, how beautiful upon the mountains shall they be.  And it came to
     pass that I beheld the remnant of the seed of my brethren, and also the book
     of the Lamb of God, which had proceeded forth from the mouth of the Jew,
     that it came forth from the Gentiles unto the remnant of the seed of my brethren.
     And after it had come forth unto them I beheld other books, which came forth
     by the power of the Lamb, from the Gentiles unto them, unto the convincing
     of the Gentiles and the remnant of the seed of my brethren, and also the Jews
     who were scattered upon all the face of the earth, that the records of the prophets
     and of the twelve apostles of the Lamb are true.  And the angel spake unto me,
     saying: These last records, which thou hast seen among the Gentiles, shall
       establish the truth of the first, which are of the twelve apostles of the Lamb,
     and shall make known the plain and precious things which have been taken
     away from them; and shall make known to all kindreds, tongues, and people,
     that the Lamb of God is the Son of the Eternal Father, and the Savior of the
     world; and that all men must come unto him, or they cannot be saved.  And
     they must come according to the words which shall be established by the mouth
     of the Lamb; and the words of the Lamb shall be made known in the records of
     thy seed, as well as in the records of the twelve apostles of the Lamb; where-
     fore they both shall be established in one; for there is one God and one
       Shepherd over all the earth.  And the time cometh that he shall manifest
     himself unto all nations, both unto the Jews and also unto the Gentiles;
     and after he has manifested himself unto the Jews and also unto the Gentiles,
     then he shall manifest himself unto the Gentiles and also unto the Jews,
     and the last shall be first, and the first shall be last.

B.  The ancient Books of the Bible, compared with Mormon Archaeology,
     invalidate the documentary hypothesis theories, traditionally known as:
     J, E, P, and D; for the Torah and the Deuteronomy history, from Joshua
     to Kings.  Some modern historians incorrectly state that the Torah
     was gradually recorded as the Hebrew Bible, between the 5th century
     B.C. and the 2nd century B.C.  Clearly, internal source evidence from
     the
Pearl of Great Price, the OT - NT and the Book of Mormon, suggest
     primary source documents, or copies thereof, going back to the time of
     Adam and (Eve - the Mother of all Living), were readily available to
     
Moses, who then wrote or copied them for himself and other Israelites.
     The
list of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources is compelling.
     Additional validation of the Bible, as a surviving primary source document,

     is made by the Joseph Smith, Jr. Translation of the Bible.  Words added
     and corrections made, restore the original formation and sense of ancient
     scribes and prophets, including technical details from Genesis to
Revelation.
    
Joseph Smith, Jr. said, [I believe the Bible as it read when it came from the pen
     of the original writers. Ignorant translators, careless transcribers, or designing and
     corrupt priests have committed many errors. As it read, Gen. 6:6, "It repented the
     Lord that he had made man on the earth"; also, Num. 23:19, "God is not a man,
     that he should lie; neither the Son of man, that he should repent"; which I do not
     believe. But it ought to read, "It repented Noah that God made man." This I believe,
     and then the other quotation stands fair. If any man will prove to me, by one passage
     of Holy Writ, one item I believe to be false, I will renounce and disclaim it as far as I
     promulgated it..] 
Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith,
Jr., p. 327.

C. 
Modern claims of genealogical attachment to the biblical
     (
Old Testament) records are noted, with remarks.
     - Ancestor Roots Information: Israel
       - Mother's Love - Joys and Challenges
     - History of Ancient Israel and Judah
       - The Lord Jesus Christ, Jews, The House of Joseph, Gentiles and Heathens
     -
Jew, Jewish
     - Jewish Ethnic Divisions
     -
Jewish Languages
     - Judaism by Country
 
    - Kingdom of Israel (United Monarchy)
     - Kingdom of Judah
     - Kings of Judah
     - Mormonism and Judaism
     -
Oxyrhynchus Papyri
     -
People of Israel - Judah




025:   LEVI (the son of JACOB - ISRAEL)

Family of Levi:
Levi
Marriage:
Gospel Women: Studies of the Named Women in the Gospels,
by
Richard Bauckham (Amazon.com): + and the name of Levi's
wife is Melka, of the daughters of
Aram, of the seed of the sons of Terah;
(
The Book of Jubilees 34:20).

The Children of 025: Levi
025-001:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 026: BOOK -
Gershon (Gershonite)
025-002:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 026: KOHATH
025-003:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 026: BOOK -
Merari (Merarites
)
025-004:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a dau) 026: BOOK - Jochebed

Family Information:
Levite

geography (location):
Levi was born in
Paddan Aram, while his father Jacob
was working for his uncle and father-in-law
Laban.
Lived in Canaan and Ancient Egypt.

life:
Levi  Exodus 6: 16  The years of the life of Levi
were an hundred thirty and seven years.

religion:
Levi:
Levite - Levites

time period:
Numbers 1: 48-54  The Book of Leviticus was written by
the prophet Moses, dealing with the priestly duties in Israel.

Research Notes (Sources):
↑ upΛ
A.  Jewish History Resource Center - Resource Index
     The Jewish History Resource Center is a project of the
     Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, of the Hebrew
     University of Jerusalem.  Links to websites in various categories
     dealing with Jewish History are visited and evaluated: to index
     resources on the web that can help in the study of Jewish History.

B. 
Levitical Priesthood - The Encyclopedia of Mormonism



026:   KOHATH (the son of LEVI)

Family of Kohath:
Kohath: (
Kohathites)
Marriage:

The Children of 026: Kohath
026-001:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 027: AMRAM
026-002:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 027: BOOK - 
                  Izehar - Izhar (Izeharites) - Amminadab
1 Chronicles 6: 22
026-003:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 027: BOOK -
Hebron (Hebronites)
026-004:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 027: BOOK -
Uzziel (Uzzielites),
                  the father of
Mishael, Elzaphan and Zithri

Family Information:
Moved to Goshen in Egypt, by his father Levi (Genesis 46:11).

geography (location):
Lived in Canaan and Ancient Egypt.
life:
Kohath
religion:
Kohath

time period:
Exodus 6: 18  The years of the life of Kohath
were an hundred thirty and three years.

Research Notes:
↑ upΛ



027:   AMRAM (the son of KOHATH)

Family of Amram:
Amram

Marriage:

Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife.

The Children of 027: Amram
027-001:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 028: BOOK -
Aaron
                  Aaron was married to Elisheva, daughter of 029:
                  Aminadab - Amminadab 1 Chronicles 23: 13
                  Aaron was separated, that he should sanctify
                  the most holy things, he [
Aaron] and his sons
                  for ever, to burn incense before the LORD, to
                  minister unto him, and to bless in his name for
                  ever: Aaronic Priesthood - Aaronic Priesthood.

                  Kohen (
Cohen) families claim direct lineage
                  connections to Aaron, along with other modern
                  Jewish families bearing
Kohenitic surnames.
027-002:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 028: MOSES
027-003:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 028: BOOK - Miriam

Family Information:
The family of the Amramites.

geography (location):
Lived in Ancient Egypt.

life:
Amram
religion:
Amram

time period:
Exodus 6: 20  The years of the life of Amram
were an hundred and thirty and seven years.

Research Notes: (Priesthood):
Aaronic Priesthood ↑ upΛ
A.  [Aaronic] High Priests of Israel  "The description of the clothing of
     the Jewish high priest in the Book of Exodus portrays the Urim and
     Thummim as being put into the sacred breastplate, worn by the high
     priest over the Ephod",
which "was woven out of gold, blue, purple,
     and
scarlet threads, was made of fine linen, and was embroidered
     'with skillful work' in gold thread
".  The high priests, like all Jewish
     priests, belonged to the Aaronic line, which priesthood is currently
     administered by
Bishops in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
     Saints, who are today also entitled to have a Urim and Thummim,
     (to obtain answers from the LORD concerning temporal matters); to
     "set in order the house of God" and arrange for all the "inheritances
     of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints"; by a
     future Presiding Bishop, under the authority of the First Presidency;
     those who have had their family unit calling and election made sure.
     {"When the Lord has thoroughly proved [a person], and finds that the
     [person] is determined to serve Him at all hazards, then the [person]
     will find his[/her] calling and election made sure".  Joseph Smith, Jr.}
     -
D&C 68: 15-21

       -
Aaronic Priesthood.  And if they be literal descendants of Aaron
            they have a legal right to the bishopric, if they are the firstborn
         among the sons of Aaron; For the firstborn holds the right of the
         presidency over this priesthood, and the keys or authority of the
         same.  No man has a legal right to this office, to hold the keys of
         this priesthood, except he be a literal descendant and the firstborn
         of Aaron. . . . And a literal descendant of Aaron, also, must be
         designated by this Presidency, and found worthy, and anointed,
         and ordained under the hands of this Presidency, otherwise they
         are not legally authorized to officiate in their priesthood.   But, by
         virtue of the decree concerning their right of the priesthood descending
         from father to son, they may claim their anointing if at any time
         they can prove their lineage, or do ascertain it by revelation from
         the Lord under the hands of the above named Presidency.
         -
Cohen-Levi Family Heritage - The Tribe
           Jewish tradition, based on the Torah, is that all Kohanim
           are direct descendants of Aharon, the original Kohen.

         -
Jewish Genetics
           Collection of abstracts and reviews
           of books, articles and genetic studies.
           -
Y-Chromosomal Aaron
             Modern Kohens claim descent from a biblical person,
             Aaron, brother of Moses, in the direct lineage from Levi,
             the patriarch of the Tribe of Levi, great grandson of Abraham,
             according to the tradition codified in the Tanakh.

B.  In the days of Herod, the King of Judaea, a certain priest
     named Zacharias, of the course of Abia, had a wife named
     Elisabeth, who was of the daughters of Aaron.  They were the
     parents of a special  son, known as 
John the Baptist.  Zacharias,
    
according to the custom of the priest’s office, burnt incense when
     he went into the temple of the Lord.   The course of
Abia, descended
     from
Abijah or Abiah, meaning "My father is Yahweh", in Hebrew.

     Abijah was the name of the head of the eighth of the twenty-four courses,
     a descendant of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, into which King David had
     divided the priests, living in his day. 
Later, in Jerusalem, there was
     at the Temple Mount, the
Avtinus
Chamber Room, where incense was
     compounded for use in the offerings upon the Golden Altar.

     Beth Ab was the name for the Father's House, the Temple at Jerusalem.
     This holy chamber [Av (father) + tinus; Ab is a variant of Av, part of Aramaic
     abba, father], was named after the Jewish aristocratic
Avtinus
family,
     merchants and spice makers.  According to The Babylonian Talmud, [
Talmud]
     Vol. 12, Seder Mo'ed, (Vol. IV), Shekalim, Chapter V, page 19:
     the House of Abtinas [was] over the preparing of the frankincense.

     The
wise men from the east who came into the house where Jesus Christ
     lived as a young child (
St. Matthew, 2:1-11), saw Him with Mary his mother,
     and fell down, and worshipped Him: and when they had opened their treasures,
     they presented unto Him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.  Gold was sent
     annually to the Temple at Jerusalem, from communal contributions, suggesting
     the
wise men
from the east came as legal and lawful representatives from Syria,
     Arabia, India or beyond.  The presentation of the gift of frankincense, used as part
     of the exclusive Jewish priesthood Temple rite of sacrifice, at Jerusalem, was a
     symbolic recognition of the holy priesthood authority of Jesus Christ, as Lord
     and Royal Master, even as a little child.

    
The sayings of Jesus Christ concerning the destruction of the House of the Lord,
     were known within the Abtinas family, as noted by statements of their posterity,
     recorded in The Babylonian Talmud.  [See also: the
Holy Temple Revisited, (1990)].
     The righteous tannaim were living libraries of knowledge, having memorized
     tannaitic statements.  They were wells of living water, as in the Temple Teni priests,
     even baskets full of books, centered in the supreme sacrifice of the Chosen One of
     Israel, the Messiah Jesus Christ.  It is mentioned in The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 6,
     Seder Nashim, (Vol. II), Kethuboth, Chapter XIII, pages 681-682, that "the house
     of Abtinas" (a priestly family) [who were in charge] of the preparation of the
     incense, received their wages from the Temple funds.

    
The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 11, Seder Mo'ed, (Vol. III), Yoma, Chapter III,
     pages 176-178, mentions "They of the House of Abtinas" would not teach
     anything about the preparation of the incense, of which they were expert.
     Their smoke ascended [as straight] as a stick.  When the Sages asked why
     they, the House of Abtinas, would not teach their art, the reply was "They
     knew in our father's house that this House is going to be destroyed and
     they said: Perhaps an unworthy man will learn [this art] and will serve an
     idol therewith. --- And for the following reason was their memory kept in
     honour: Never did a bride of their house go forth perfumed, and when they
     married a woman from elsewhere they expressly forbade her to do so lest
     people say: From [the preparation of] the incense they are perfuming
     themselves.  [They did so] to fulfill the command: 'Ye shall be clear
     before
the Lord and before Israel.' "




028:   MOSES (the son of AMRAM)

Family of Moses:
Moses
Marriages:
Exodus 2: 18-22  Zipporah, a daughter of Reuel [Jethro],
Exodus 18: 1  High Priest of Midian.  Numbers 12: 1 And Miriam
and Aaron spake against Moses because of the Ethiopian woman
whom he had married: for he had married an Ethiopian woman.

D&C 132: 38  David also received many wives and concubines,
and also Solomon and Moses my servants, as also many others
of my servants, from the beginning of creation until this time;
and in nothing did they sin save in those things which they received
not of me.

The Children of 028: Moses
028-001:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son---/descendant) 029: GERSHOM
028-002:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son) 029: BOOK -
Eliezer

Family Information:
geography (location):
Moses was born and lived as heir royalty in
Ancient Egypt.
He escaped into
Midian; then returned unto his brother Aaron,
back to
Ancient Egypt.  Moses then led the children of Israel
out of Ancient Egypt, through the
Red Sea, leading them thereafter
throughout the
Sinai Peninsula: Stations of the Exodus, until he was
translated, prior to Joshua passing over the Jordan River, into Canaan.

life:
Moses

religion:
Moses wrote the
Book of Moses, part of the Pearl of Great Price.
Moses obtained two sets of tablets (tables of stone), written upon
by JEHOVAH (Jesus Christ): the first being the laws of His
Holy
Order (and the ordinances thereof); the second tables being the
set of lesser laws, known as the Ten Commandments.  Jesus Christ
wrote records in heaven, as well as upon earth, showing by His wise
example, the way back to the presence of His Father: the great Eloheim.

Moses received the Melchizedek Priesthood under the hand of his
father-in-law Jethro. 
D&C 84: 6-14  And Jethro received it under
the hand of Caleb; And Caleb received it under the hand of Elihu;
And Elihu under the hand of Jeremy; And Jeremy under the hand
of Gad; And Gad under the hand of Esaias; And Esaias received it
under the hand of God. 
JST Genesis 14: 25-40  And this Melchizedek,
having thus established righteousness, was called the King of Heaven
[GOD] by his people, or, in other words, the King of Peace.  [GOD]
Esaias also lived in the days of Abraham, and was blessed of him--
Which Abraham [also] received the priesthood from Melchizedek,
who was 013: The great High Priest Shem, the son of Noah.

time period:


Research Notes (Historical):
↑ upΛ
A. 
Egyptian Links in Strabo on the Land of the Jews
Strabo
, living from 63/64 BC to circa AD 24, was a Greek historian,
geographer and philosopher.
  Looking at Jerusalem from a "gentile"
perspective, he says:


These districts (of Jerusalem and Joppa) lie towards the north; they
are inhabited generally, and each place in particular, by mixed tribes
of Egyptians, Arabians, and Phoenicians.  Of this description are the
inhabitants of Galilee, of the plain of Jericho, and of the territories
of Philadelphia and Samaria, surnamed Sebaste by Herod; but though
there is such a mixture of inhabitants, the report most credited, among
many things believed respecting the temple and the inhabitants of
Jerusalem, is that the Egyptians were the ancestors of the present Jews.
[
Paulus or Paullus; (Saul of Tarsus), circa 5 BC to circa 67 AD, a Hellenistic
Jew, is a genealogical primary source validation of Strabo's report, when
Paul himself, is confused in Jerusalem as being of the race of Egyptians.
]
An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the country
called Lower Egypt, being dissatisfied with the established institutions
there, left it and came to Judea with a large body of people who worshiped
the Divinity.
  From the Biblical standpoint, Moses had a problem with handling
snakes in Egypt (staff of Moses transformed into a snake and then back into a staff)
and later Nehushtan

Ancient Semitic Snake Spells Deciphered in Egyptian Pyramid.
"The passages, inscribed on the subterranean walls of the pyramid of King Unas
at Saqqara, reveal that the Egyptians enlisted the magical assistance of Semitic
Canaanites from the ancient city of Byblos; [Egyptians imported timber and resin for
building and mummification (cedar sawdust for mummification and the resin, known
as Cedria, for embalming.)]  "This is a discovery of utmost importance," Bar-Asher said.
"Almost all the words found [in these texts] are also found in the Bible."  "It's not as
different from biblical Hebrew as some people might have expected," Yeshiva University's
Steiner added.  "A lot of the characteristics of Hebrew that we know from the Bible are
already present in these texts."  Continuing, [The language of the newly deciphered spells
is so similar to biblical Hebrew, in fact, that Steiner was able to solve a long-standing
dispute over the meaning of the word "pot."  Isaiah 3:17 reads, in regard to the daughters
of Zion, "the Lord will uncover their pot."  By the Middle Ages there was already a dispute
among biblical scholars over whether the word referred to the females' genitalia or to a
part of their heads, Steiner said in his lecture.  But the use of this rare word in one of
the Canaanite spells appears to settle the question.  "From this text it is now clear
the Hebrew term used  by
Isaiah refers to the female genitalia,"
Bar-Asher, of the Hebrew University, said.]


He [Moses] declared and taught that the Egyptians and Africans entertained
erroneous sentiments, in representing, the Divinity under the likeness
of wild beasts and cattle of the field; that the Greeks also were error
in making images of their gods after the human form. For God, said he,
may be this one thing which encompasses us all, land and sea, which we
call heaven, or the universe, or the nature of things.  Who, then, of any
understanding would venture to form an image of this Deity, resembling
anything with which we are conversant?  On the contrary, we ought not
to carve any images, but to set apart some sacred ground as a shrine
worthy of the Deity, and to worship Him without any similitude.  He taught
that those who made fortunate dreams were to be permitted to sleep in the
temple, where they might dream both for themselves and others; that those
who practiced temperance and justice, and none else, might expect good,
or some gift or sign from the God, from time to time.  By such doctrine
Moses persuaded a large body of right-minded persons to accompany
him to the place where Jerusalem now stands.  He easily obtained possession
of it as the spot was not such as to excite jealousy, nor for which there could
be any fierce contention; for it is rocky, and, although well supplied with water,
it is surrounded by a barren and waterless territory.  The space within the city is
60 stadia in circumference, with rock underneath the surface.  Instead of arms,
he taught that their defense was in their sacred things and the Divinity, for whom
he was desirous of finding a settled place, promising to the people to deliver
such a kind of worship and religion as should not burden those who adopted
it with great expense, nor molest them with so-called divine possessions, nor
other absurd practices. Moses thus obtained their good opinion, and established
no ordinary kind of government.  All the nations around willingly united themselves
to him, allured by his discourses and promises.  [In the time of Joshua, Jerusalem
was in territory allocated to the tribe of Benjamin (
Joshua 18:28) but it continued
to be under the independent control of the Jebusites until it was conquered by David
and made into the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel (circa 1000 BC).  Recent
excavations of a large stone structure are interpreted by some archaeologists
as lending credence to the biblical narrative.]

[The Bible states that “Moses the servant of the Lord died” and was buried by the Lord
(Deuteronomy 34:5-6).  But from the evidence of Alma 45, cited above, there seems to
have been a tradition that
he had been translated or taken away.  This may be suggested
in D&C 84:25, where we read that the Lord “took Moses out of their midst.” Only one text
known in Joseph Smith’s day suggested that Moses had not died.  It is found in Josephus,
Antiquities of the Jews 4.8.48.  Josephus is not the only Jewish source for the translation
of Moses.  The Babylonian Talmud (Sotah 13b) indicates that some said Moses had never
died but was alive and serving on high -- an idea repeated in other texts such as Midrash
ha-Gadol, Zot habberakhah 4:5, Sifre to Deuteronomy 357, Memar Marqah, and Midrash
Leqah Tob.  The medieval Zohar reflects the same tradition.]  His successors continued
for some time to observe the same conduct, doing justly, and worshipping God with
sincerity.  Afterwards superstitious persons were appointed to the priesthood, and then
tyrants.  From superstition arose abstinence from flesh, from the eating of which it is now
the custom to refrain, circumcision, cliterodectomy, and other practices which the people
observe.  The tyrannical government produced robbery; for the rebels plundered both their
own and the neighboring countries.  Those also who shared in the government seized upon
the property of others, and ravaged a large part of Syria and of Phoenicia.  Respect,
however, was paid to the Acropolis [Zion, or the Temple Mount in Jerusalem]; it was
not abhorred as the seat of tyranny, but honoured and venerated as a temple. . . .
Such was Moses and his successors; their beginning was good, but they degenerated.

This is also further reinforced by the Petition to Authorize Elephantine Temple
Reconstruction.  Mentioned: Darius II, Persian emperor from 425/4 to 405/4 BC,
"To our lord, Bagohi, governor of Yehud,"
(1)  Bagohi is one of the names in the lists of Judahites who returned
from Babylon (The Return To Zion, see, e.g., Ezra 2:2; Neh 7:7).  In the
Bible the name is spelled "Bigvai," or in Greek "Bagoas" (e.g., Judith 12:11).
Jews returned to the Land of Israel from the Babylonian exile following
the decree by the Persian King Cyrus, the conqueror of the Babylonian
empire in 538 BC, also known as Cyrus's Declaration.

(2)  The name Yehud was used for Judah while it was a Persian province.
[Yebamoth: (יבמות, "Levirate marriage"); (or Yebamot or Yevamot), referring
to the mandated marriage of a widow to her brother-in-law, deals with the
Jewish law of levirate marriage (Deut. 25:5-10) and other topics, such as the
status of minors. It consists of 16 chapters.] . . . Now, our ancestors built this
temple in the fortress of Yeb in the days of the kingdom of Egypt; and when
Cambyses came to Egypt he found it (already) constructed. 
Cambyses invaded
Egypt in 525 BC.  "According to Herodotus (484-425 B.C.), Cambyses, the son of
Cyrus the Great, sent 50,000 soldiers from Thebes to attack the Oasis of Siwa
and destroy the oracle at the Temple of Amun after the priests there refused
to legitimize his claim to Egypt."  . . . Now, our ancestors built this temple in
the fortress of Yeb in the days of the kingdom of Egypt; and when Cambyses
came to Egypt he found it (already) constructed.  That means that much before
525 BC, there was an affluent Hebrew community, that had both military and
government status, dealing in trade relations that could amass sufficient wealth
to build a local temple to the true god [Yahu is one form of the divine name of
Yahweh, the Israelite god (also: Yo and Yah, as in the names "Yonatan" [1 Sam 14:1]
and "Hodiyah" [1 Chron 4:19]).].  . . . "they entered the temple and burned it to
the ground.  They smashed the stone pillars that were there.  They demolished
five great gateways constructed of hewn blocks of stone which were in the temple;
but their doors (are still standing), and the hinges of those doors are made of bronze.
And the roof of cedar in its entirety, with the . . . and whatever else was there, were
all burned with fire.  As for the basins of gold and silver and other articles that were
in the temple, they carried all of them off and took them as personal possessions."

(3) 
Judean Auxiliaries in Egypt's War Against Kush
"During the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, mercenaries and foreign soldiers served
as combatants in the Egyptian army.  They were first attested during the reign
of Psammetichus I and their presence increased constantly.  They came from
mainland Greece, the Aegean Islands, Caria, Lydia, Libya, Kush, Phoenicia,
Aram, Israel, and Judah.  They are mentioned on private stelae, and in
administrative and legal papyri, biblical books, classical sources, Egyptian
and Assyrian royal inscriptions, and their presence is also demonstrated
by archaeological finds."  The Semitic Influence in Ancient Egypt:
"Daphnae was supposed to have been built in the time of the 26th dynasty
in about 664 BC and existed until about 565 BC."
  When King Psammetichus
(ie. Psamtik II) came to Elephantine, this was written by those who sailed
with Psammetichus the son of Theocles, and they came beyond Kerkis
as far as the river permits.  Those who spoke foreign tongues
(Greek and Carians who also scratched their names on the monument) were
led by Potasimto, the Egyptians by Amasis.   Later, in 591 BC, during the fourth
year of his reign, Psamtik II launched an expedition into Palestine "to foment a
general Levantine revolt against the Babylonians" that involved, among other,
Zedekiah of the Kingdom of Judah.  
"The treaty's provision dealt with an actual
situation.  It casts additional light on the story of martyrdom as told in the Bible:
the story of mutilated prisoners, slaughtered children, and deportations; and the
story of these few who escaped from the horrors of torture, of their flight to Egypt,
and of the long arm that reached out for the refugees into the land of their asylum.

B.  Antiquities of the Jews - Book II - From the Death of Isaac to the Exodus out of Egypt

C.  Antiquities of the Jews - Book III - Exodus (Two Years)

D. 
Antiquities of the Jews - Book IV - To the Death of Moses

E. 
Antiquities of the Jews - Book V - From the Death of Moses to the Death of Eli


029:   GERSHOM (the son of MOSES)

Family of Gershom:
Gershom
Marriage:

The Children of 029: Gershom
029-001:   DIRECT DESCENDANT (a son---/descendant) 030: Shebuel - Shubael

Family Information:
geography (location):
Born at
Midian.
life:
Gershom
religion:
Gershom
time period:

Research Notes:
↑ upΛ
A. 
Jonathan - Jehonathan, son or descendant of Gershom.

B.  Antiquities of the Jews - Book II - From the Death of Isaac to the Exodus out of Egypt

C.  Antiquities of the Jews - Book III - Exodus (Two Years)

D. 
Antiquities of the Jews - Book IV - To the Death of Moses

E. 
Antiquities of the Jews - Book V - From the Death of Moses to the Death of Eli



The BOOK [Stick] of LEVI ↑ upΛ
Copyright 1997-2015
By: V. Chris & Thomas M. Tinney, Sr.
All rights reserved.  Email: vctinney@sbcglobal.net



Return To:  Alphabetic History of Civilization: Ancient and Modern Genealogies